Hedju Hor

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Hedju Hor on Wikipedia

Picture of Hedju Hor's name.

Hedju Hor was a ruler in northern Egypt from the Predynastic Period.[1][2] His existence is controversial.

It is thought by some that his rule was around 6800, though accurate details of his rule are currently unavailable, due to his rule being in prehistory. Almost nothing is known of his rule, as he is known only from inscriptions found in the Delta region and a pottery shards from Tura. It has been variously conjectured he was possibly the first pharaoh of Lower Egypt, or the last or that he was a member of Dynasty 0.

Scholarly assessment

Hedju-Hor is only known from two clay jugs from Tura.[3] in the eastern Nile Delta and one from Abu Zeidan on the northeastern tip of the Nile - Delta, on which his Serech appears.[4]

Egyptologists Toby Wilkinson[5] and Jochem Kahl both argue that Hedju Horwas not a pre-dynastic Pharaoh but rather a ruler of a small proto state of pre-dynastic era and have attributed him the title King.

Wolfgang Helck by contrast holds him a Pharaoh of Dynasty 0 and has identified him with Wash, who is known from the Narmer Palette.[6]

Edwin van den Brink[7] has conversely identified him with one of the defeated kings on the Nammer Pallet,[3] meaning he would be the last king of the unified Delta region. However, the paucity and geographic confinement of his attestation would make this unlikely.

Hedju-Hor has no known tomb and is not found in the text of the Palermo Stone, the oldest known king list.[8] further making the claims of both Wolfgang Helck and Edwin van den Brink unlikely.


  1. Dr. Günther Eichhorn - Protodynastic Period - 3200 to 3100 BCE.
  2. Ludwig David Morenz: Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2004; Academic Press, Fribourg 2004, ISBN 3-7278-1486-1.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Ancient Egypt - Dynasty 0". www.narmer.pl. Retrieved 2019-10-06.
  4. Henry Georg Fischer: Varia Aegyptiaca . In: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, No. 2 . Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake 1963, p. 44.
  5. Toby A.H. Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt - Strategy, Security and Society. Routledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1. page 55-56.
  6. Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, page 125.
  7. Edwin van den Brink: The Incised Serekh-Signs of Dynasties 0-1, Part I: complete vessels. In: Jeffrey Spencer: Aspects of Early Egypt. (British Museum Press, London 1996), ISBN 0-7141-0999-1 . page 86.
  8. Hsu, Hsu, Shih-Wei (2010) The Palermo Stone: the Earliest Royal Inscription from Ancient Egypt, Altoriental. Forsch., Akademie Verlag, 37 (2010) 1, 68–89.