List of kings of Babylon

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List of kings of Babylon on Wikipedia

King of Babylon
Babylon's last native king
First monarchSumu-abum
Last monarchNabonidus (native rule)
Nidin-Bel (last native rebel)
Gotarzes (last to be accorded title)
Formationc. 8107
Abolition9462 (native rule)
9665 (last native rebel)
c. 9921 (Parthian kings)
AppointerDivine right, hereditary

The King of Babylon (Akkadian: šar Bābili), in some periods called the Governor or Viceroy of Babylon (Akkadian: šakkanakki Bābili), the King of Babylonia (Akkadian: šar māt Bābil) or the King of Karduniash (Akkadian: šar Karduniaš), was the ruler of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Babylon, and its kingdom (Babylonia) which existed as an independent kingdom from approximately the 82nd century to the 95th century. Although Babylon tended to control most of southern Mesopotamia during its time as independent kingdom, it experienced two major periods of ascendancy, when Babylon dominated all of Mesopotamia and lands beyond; the Old Babylonian Empire (or "First dynasty", c. 81078406) and the Neo-Babylonian Empire (or "Eleventh dynasty", 93759462).

Of the eleven ancient dynasties that ruled Babylon from its foundation as an independent realm c. 8107 to the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 9462, few were of native Babylonian ancestry. Several dynasties were of Kassite origin and there were also Assyrian, Elamite, Chaldean and Amorite rulers. Despite this, Babylon would often fiercely attempt to assert its independence and it repeatedly clashed against the other major Akkadian-speaking Mesopotamian kingdom of its time, Assyria. The period when the Assyrians ruled as kings of Babylon (the Neo-Assyrian Empire or "Tenth dynasty", 92729375) saw repeated rebellions in Babylon, eventually culminating in a successful return to independence.

After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the title of King of Babylon continued to be used by monarchs of the successive empires which ruled Mesopotamia and the citizens of Babylon itself continued to apply it to whoever happened to rule their homeland at the time. Revolts aimed at independence continued unsuccessfully for centuries, with Babylon revolting as late as 9665, more than two centuries after it had native monarchs. The last recorded rulers to be accorded the title by the Babylonians were Parthian kings in the 100th century, after which the Akkadian language and Babylonian culture diminished and eventually disappeared.

Babylonian King List

The Babylonian King List is a very specific ancient list of supposed Babylonian kings recorded in several ancient locations, and related to its predecessor, the Sumerian King List. As in the latter, contemporaneous dynasties are misleadingly listed as successive without comment.[citation needed]

There are three versions, which are known as "King List A"[1] (containing all the kings from the First Dynasty of Babylon to the Neo-Assyrian king Kandalanu), "King List B"[2] (containing only the two first dynasties), and "King List C"[3] (containing the first seven kings of the Second Dynasty of Isin). A fourth version was written in Greek by Berossus. The "Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Age" is a continuation that mentions all the Seleucid kings from Alexander the Great to Demetrius II Nicator.[4]

List of kings

First dynasty (81078406)

Also called the Amorite dynasty. The dates used follow the "middle chronology" (reign of Hammurabi 82098251), the chronology most commonly encountered in literature, including many current textbooks on the archaeology and history of the ancient Near East.[5][6][7]

No. Image King Reign[8] Succession Notes Ref
1 Sumu-abum
c. 81078120

(13 years)

Liberated Babylon from the control of Kazallu The first king of Babylon, Sumu-abum freed a small region centered on Babylon, previously under the control of the city state Kazallu. He did not title himself as King of Babylon (and neither did his first three successors), suggesting that the city wasn't very important at the time. [8][9]
2 Sumu-la-El
c. 81208156

(36 years)

Unknown Sumu-la-El's year names reference the construction of a great city wall in Babylon. [8][10]
3 Sabium
c. 81568170

(14 years)

Unknown Sabium's year names reference wars with Larsa and building projects in various cities in the region surrounding Babylon. [8][11]
4 Apil-Sin
c. 81708188

(18 years)

Unknown Apil-Sin's year names reference several building projects in Babylon, including temples and a new city wall. [8][12]
5 Sin-Muballit
c. 81888209

(21 years)

Son of Apil-Sin The first ruler to actually title himself King of Babylon, began expanding the territory of his previously minor empire. [8][13]
6 F0182 Louvre Code Hammourabi Bas-relief Sb8 rwk.jpg Hammurabi
c. 82098251

(42 years)

Son of Sin-Muballit Hammurabi massively expanded Babylon's territory, founding the Old Babylonian Empire and bringing most of Mesopotamia under his control. He is also famous for the Code of Hammurabi, one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. [8][14]
7 Samsu-iluna
c. 82518289

(38 years)

Son of Hammurabi Samsu-iluna campaigned victoriously against several of Babylon's rebellious vassals in the wake of Hammurabi's death and though he was unable to keep the entirety of his father's empire together, he successfully retained control of the empire's heartlands in southern Mesopotamia. [8]
8 Abi-Eshuh
c. 82898317

(28 years)

Son of Samsu-iluna Babylonia experienced severe Elamite raids during Abu-Eshuh's reign. [8]
9 Ammi-Ditana
c. 83178354

(47 years)

Son of Abi-Eshuh Largely peaceful reign; Ammi-Ditana was primarily engaged in building projects such as enriching and enlarging the temples. [8]
10 Ammi-Saduqa
c. 83548375

(21 years)

Unknown Largely peaceful reign; Ammi-Saduqa was primarily engaged in building projects such as enriching and enlarging the temples. [8]
11 Samsu-Ditana
c. 83758406

(31 years)

Great-great-grandson of Hammurabi The Old Babylonian Empire came to a sudden end during Samsu-Ditana's reign as the Hittites, for reasons unknown, sacked and destroyed the city. [8]

Babylon was sacked and destroyed by the Hittites in c. 8406. The city and its kingdom was not firmly re-established until c. 8470, by the Kassite king Agum II.[15]

Second dynasty (82698540)

Also called the Sealand dynasty. These rulers might only have ruled Babylonia itself for the briefest of periods, being based in formerly Sumerian regions south of it. Nevertheless, it is often traditionally numbered the Second Dynasty of Babylon, and so it is listed here. Little is known of these rulers. They were counted as kings of Babylon in later king lists, succeeding the Amorite dynasty despite overlapping reigns.[16]

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
12 Ilum-ma-ili
c. 8269

(60 years)

13 Itti-ili-nibi
(56 years) Unknown
14 Damqi-ilishu
(36 years) Unknown
15 Ishkibal
(15 years) Unknown [16]
16 Shushushi
(24 years) Brother of Ishkibal [16]
17 Gulkishar
(55 years) Unknown [16]
18 mDIŠ+U-EN
Unknown Unknown [16]
19 Peshgaldaramesh
(50 years) Son of Gulkishar [16]
20 Ayadaragalama
(28 years) Son of Peshgaldaramesh [16]
21 Akurduana
(26 years) Unknown [16]
22 Melamkurkurra
(7 years) Unknown [16]
23 Ea-gamil
c. 8540

(9 years)


Early Kassite rulers (82708470)

These kings also did not actually rule Babylon, but their numbering scheme was continued for later Kassite Kings of Babylon, and so they are listed here. Little is known of these rulers. They were counted as kings of Babylon in later king lists, succeeding the Sealand dynasty despite overlapping reigns.[16]

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
24 Gandash
c. 8270

(26 years)

25 Agum I Mahru
Agum Maḫrû
(22 years) Unknown
26 Kashtiliash I
(22 years) Son of Agum I [16]
27 Abi-Rattash
Abi-Rattaš or Uššiašu
Unknown Son of Kashtiliash I [16]
28 Kashtiliash II
Unknown Unknown [16]
29 Ur-zigurumash
Ur-zigurumaš or Tazzigurumaš
Unknown Descendant of Abi-Rattash [16]
30 Hurbazum
Ḫurbazum or Ḫarba-Šipak
Unknown Unknown [16]
31 Shipta'ulzi
Šipta’ulzi or Tiptakzi
Unknown Unknown [16]

Third dynasty (84708846)

Also called the Kassite dynasty.

No. Image King Reign[17] Succession Notes Ref
32 Agum II Kakrime
c. 8470 Re-established Babylon Established the long-lived Kassite dynasty as the rulers of Babylon. Portrays himself as the legitimate ruler and caring “shepherd” of both the Kassites and the Akkadians.
33 Burnaburiash I
c. 8485 Son of Agum II It is possible that Burnaburiash I, and not Agum II, was the actual first Kassite ruler to hold Babylon. Engaged in diplomacy with the Assyrian king Puzur-Ashur III.
34 Kashtiliash III
c. 8500 Son of Burnaburiash I Only known from the Assyrian Synchronistic King List.
35 Ulamburiash
c. 8520 Son of Burnaburiash I Conquered the Sealand Dynasty, establishing the Kassites as rulers of all of southern Mesopotamia.
36 Agum III
c. 8531 Son of Kashtiliash III The only Babylonian reference to Agum III is from an expedition he led against "the Sealand".
37 Part of front of Inanna temple of Kara Indasch from Uruk Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin.jpg Karaindash
c. 8590 Unknown One of the Kassite dynasty's more prominent rulers, Karaindash, Karaindash refurbished a temple at Uruk and engaged in diplomacy with Assyria and Egypt.
38 Kadashman-harbe I
c. 8600 Unknown Campaigned against the against the Sutû and possibly against Elam.
39 ‘Aqar Qūf.jpg Kurigalzu I
c. 8626 Son of Kadashman-harbe I Kurigalzu I was responsible for one of the most extensive and widespread building programs for which evidence has survived in Babylonia.
40 Kassite - Cylinder Seal - Walters 42619.jpg Kadashman-Enlil I
c. 86278641

(14 years)

Son of Kurigalzu I Contemporary of Amenhotep III in Egypt, who he corresponded with. [17]
41 BM 29785 EA 9 Reverse v2.jpg Burnaburiash II
c. 86428668

(26 years)

Son of Kadashman-Enlil I Contemporary of Akhenaten in Egypt, who he famously corresponded with in the Amarna letters. [17]
42 Kara-hardash
c. 8668 Son of Burnaburiash Next to nothing is known of Kara-hardash's brief reign. [17]
43 Nazi-Bugash
Nazi-Bugaš or Šuzigaš
c. 8668 Overthrew Kara-hardash, unrelated to previous kings Next to nothing is known of Nazi-Bugash's brief reign. [17]
44 Cylinder seal of king Kurigalzu II Louvre Museum AOD 105.jpg Kurigalzu II the Younger
c. 86698693

(24 years)

Son of Burnaburiash II, appointed king by the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I Because he shares his name with a predecessor who reigned just forty years prior, it is difficult to distinguish documents from their reigns since the Babylonians themselves did not use regnal numbers. [17]
45 Votive inscription Louvre AO7704.jpg Nazi-Maruttash
c. 86948719

(25 years)

Son of Kurigalzu II Warred against the Assyrians and the Elamites. [17]
46 Amulet Kadashman-Turgu Louvre AO 4633.jpg Kadashman-Turgu
c. 87208737

(17 years)

Son of Nazi-Maruttash Contemporary of the Hittite king Ḫattušili III, with whom he concluded a formal treaty of friendship and mutual assistance, and also Ramesses II with whom he consequently severed diplomatic relations. [17]
47 KBo 1 10.jpg Kadashman-Enlil II
c. 87388746

(8 years)

Son of Kadashman-Turgu Succeeded his father as a child and political power was exercised at first by an influential vizier, Itti-Marduk-balatu. In contrast to Kadashman-Turgu, Itti-Marduk-balatu was sharply anti-Hittite and severed relations with them, instead opting to engage diplomatically with Assyria. [17]
48 Kudur-Enlil
c. 87478755

(8 years)

Unknown, claimed by the king list to be the son of Kadashman-Enlil II The first Kassite king to have a wholly Babylonian name. Recorded as the son of Kadashman-Enlil II in king lists, which would be impossible with the dates provided. [17]
49 Shagarakti-Shuriash
c. 87568768

(12 years)

Unknown, claimed by the king list to be the son of Kudur-Enlil Recorded as the son of Kurud-Enlil in king lists, probably impossible with the dates provided. Babylon probably faced economic problems during Shagarakti-Shuriash's reign. [17]
50 Tablet of Akaptaḫa.jpg Kashtiliash IV
c. 87698776

(8 years)

Unknown, possibly son of Shagarakti-Shuriash Warred against Assyria, which resulted in a catastrophic Assyrian invasion by Tukulti-Ninurta I and his own deposition and death. [17]
51 Enlil-nadin-shumi
c. 8777

(6 months)

Unknown, possibly installed as vassal king by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I Little contemporary evidence survives from Enlil-nadin-shumi's brief reign. Possibly deposed by invading Elamites. [17]
52 Kadashman-harbe II
c. 8778

(1 year, 6 months)

Unknown, possibly installed as vassal king by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I Little contemporary evidence survives from Kadashman-harbe II's brief reign. [17]
53 BM 90827.jpg Adad-shuma-iddina
c. 87798784

(6 years)

Unknown, possibly installed as vassal king by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I Usually identified as a vassal king to Assyria, though there is no contemporary evidence to support this. [17]
54 ABL 924.jpg Adad-shuma-usur
c. 87858814

(30 years)

Descendant of Kashtiliash IV Had a wholly Babylonian name. Known for a rude letter sent to the Assyrian king Ashur-nirari III. [17]
55 Kudurru Melishipak Louvre Sb23 n02.jpg Meli-Shipak
Meli-Šipak or Melišiḫu
c. 88158829

(14 years)

Son of Adad-shuma-usur Commonly numbered "Meli-Shipak II", an error based on over-reliance of a single inscription which mentions a son of Kurigalzu II called Meli-Shipak. His reign marks the critical synchronization point in the chronology of the Ancient Near East. [17][18]
56 Kudurru Louvre Sb31.jpg Marduk-apla-iddina I
c. 88308842

(14 years)

Son of Meli-Shipak Most documents date to Marduk-apla-iddina I's reign are economic documents or texts relating to gifts distributed during the New Year's festival. Possibly overthrown by the Elamites. [17]
57 Unfinished kudurru h9101.jpg Zababa-shuma-iddin
c. 8843

(1 year)

Unknown, probably unrelated to previous kings Without obvious ties to the royal family, his means of becoming king are unknown. His reign saw invasions by the Assyrians and the Elamites. Overthrown by the Elamites. [17]
58 Enlil-nadin-ahe kudurru.jpg Enlil-nadin-ahi
Enlil-nādin-aḫe or Enlil-šuma-uṣur
c. 88448846

(3 years)

Unknown The final king of the long-lived Kassite dynasty, probably deposed by the Elamites like his two predecessors. [17]

Fourth dynasty (88448976)

The contemporary name of this dynasty, BALA PA.ŠE, is a paronomasia on the term išinnu, “stalk”, written as PA.ŠE and is the only apparent reference to the actual city of Isin.[19] It is therefore also called the Second Dynasty of Isin (after the Dynasty of Isin, which ruled Mesopotamia c. 80488284) or Isin II.

No. Image King Reign[20] Succession Notes Ref
59 Marduk-kabit-ahheshu
c. 88448861

(17 years)

Unknown Appears to have driven out the Elamite hordes from Babylonia in a series of campaigns. Also successfully campaigned against Assyria in the north. Might not have actually ruled from Babylon. [20]
60 BM 91015.jpg Itti-Marduk-balatu
c. 88628869

(8 years)

Son of Marduk-kabit-ahheshu Ruled from Babylon. Known chiefly from building inscriptions and economic documents. [20]
61 Ninurta-nadin-shumi
c. 88708875

(7 years)

Unknown Known for a condescending letter he sent to the Assyrian king Ashur-resh-ishi I, in which he scolds the king for missing a meeting in the border town Zaqqa. [20]
62 Nabu-Kudurri-Usur.jpg Nebuchadnezzar I
c. 88768897

(20 years)

Son of Ninurta-nadin-shumi Celebrated for centuries after his death, Nebuchadnezzar I is most famous for his victorious campaign against Elam, which saw him return the sacred statue of Marduk to Babylon after it had been stolen by the Elamites c. 8850. [20]
63 Kudurru of Gula-Eresh.jpg Enlil-nadin-apli
c. 88988901

(3 years)

Son of Nebuchadnezzar I Enlil-nadin-apli is known to have campaigned against Assyria during his brief reign. He was deposed by his uncle, Marduk-nadin-ahhe. [20]
64 Marduk-nādin-aḫḫē.jpg Marduk-nadin-ahhe
c. 89028919

(18 years)

Usurper, son of Ninurta-nadin-shumi Best known for his restoration of the Eganunmaḫ in Ur and the famines and droughts that accompanied his reign, Marduk-nadin-ahhe frequently warred against his rival, Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria. [20]
65 Marduk-shapik-zeri cylinder.jpg Marduk-shapik-zeri
c. 89208932

(13 years)

Unknown, possibly son or brother of Marduk-nadin-ahhe Contemporary of the Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser I and Ashur-bel-kala. Allied with the Assyrians to defeat the Arameans, whose constant raids posed a threat to both kingdoms. [20]
66 Adad-apla-iddina
c. 89338955

(23 years)

Unrelated to previous kings, appointed by Assyrian king Ashur-bel-kala A vassal of the Assyrians, Adad-apla-iddina's reign was a golden age of scholarship, as attested in numerous inscriptions from the decades and centuries after his reign. [20]
67 Marduk-aḫḫē-erība kudurru.jpg Marduk-ahhe-eriba
c. 8955

(6 months)

Unknown The only contemporary document from Marduk-ahhe-eriba's brief reign is a land grant in a region north of Babylon.
68 Marduk-zer-X
c. 89568967

(13 years)

Unknown Only appears in king lists, no contemporary documents are known. [20]
69 Sale of Land to Pay a Ransom ca 1033 BC.jpg Nabu-shum-libur
c. 89688976

(8 years)

Unknown Little contemporary evidence survives from Nabu-shum-libur's reign, but it was a time of political turmoil, possibly due to the Aramean raiders present throughout Mesopotamia. [20]

Fifth dynasty (89768996)

Also called the Second Sealand dynasty, the evidence that this was a Kassite Dynasty is rather tenuous.[21]

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
70 BM 90937 Simbar-Shihu kudurru.jpg Simbar-shipak
c. 89768993

(17 years)

Overthrew Nabu-shum-libur Reigning during the turbulent times that had caused the fall of the Isin dynasty preceding him, Simbar-shipak was originally a soldier from southern Mesopotamia and seems to have stabilized the situation somewhat. [16]
71 Ea-mukin-zeri
c. 8993

(3 months)

Overthrew Simbar-shipak Killing Simbar-shipak, Ea-mukin-zeri ruled for only three months before being deposed and killed. [16]
72 Kashshu-nadin-ahi
c. 89948996

(3 years)

Overthrew Ea-mukin-zeri Kashshu-nadin-shumi's reign saw extreme famine but not much else is known. [16]

Sixth dynasty (89979016)

Also called the Bīt-Bazi dynasty after the region from which this minor Kassite clan originated.[22] This dynasty ruled from the city Kar-Marduk, an otherwise unknown location which might have been better protected against raids from nomadic groups than Babylon itself.[23]

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
73 Eulmash-shakin-shumi
c. 89979013

(17 years)

Overthrew Kashshu-nadin-ahi Appears to have seized the throne and moved the capital to Kar-Marduk. [16]
74 Ninurta-kudurri-usur I
c. 90149016

(2 years)

Unknown Might be the king referred to in the Babylonian text Prophecy A, in which his reign is experiences ominous events indicating that the end of the world is near. [16][24]
75 Shirikti-shuqamuna
c. 9016

(3 months)

Brother of Ninurta-kudurri-usur I Contemporary of the Assyrian king Ashur-rabi II. [16]

Seventh dynasty (90179021)

Also called the Elamite dynasty.

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
76 Mar-biti-apla-usur
c. 90179021

(4 years)

Unknown The only king of the short-lived seventh dynasty, Mar-biti-apla-usur. The circumstances of how the previous dynasty ended and Mar-biti-apla-usur gained the throne are unknown, but he was not regarded as a usurper by later Babylonian authors. [16]

Eighth dynasty (90229058)

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
77 Nabû-mukin-apli.jpg Nabu-mukin-apli
c. 90229058

(36 years)

Unknown A contemporary of the Assyria king Tiglath-Pileser II, few sources survive from Nabu-mukin-apli's reign. He was the ancestor of the early kings of the Ninth dynasty and Babylon experienced a series of devastating Aramean raids during his tenure as king. [16]

Ninth dynasty (90589272)

Also called the Dynasty of E.

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
78 Ninurta-kudurri-usur II
c. 9058

(8 months and 12 days)

Son of Nabu-mukin-apli No contemporary documents survive from the reign of Ninurta-kudurri-usur II. [16]
79 Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina
c. 90589081

(23 years)

Son of Nabu-mukin-apli Known only from king lists, a brief mention in a chronicle and as a witness on a kudurru from the reign of his father. [16]
80 Shamash-mudammiq
c. 90819101

(20 years)

Unknown Contemporary of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari II. [16]
81 Nabu-shuma-ukin I
c. 91019113

(22 years)

Unknown Warred with the Assyrian king Adad-nirari II but enjoyed good diplomatic relations with his successor, Tukulti-Ninurta II. [16]
82 Nabu-apla-iddina confirming a grant of land.jpg Nabu-apla-iddina
c. 91139146

(33 years)

Son of Nabu-shuma-ukin I Avoided conflict with the resurging Assyrian Empire under its king Ashurnasirpal II and engaged in diplomacy with his successor, Shalmaneser III. He worked on reconstructing temples and his reign saw a literary revival with the copying of many older works. [16]
83 AO 6684 deed of gift of Marduk-zākir-šumi.jpg Marduk-zakir-shumi I
c. 91469182

(36 years)

Son of Nabu-apla-iddina Defeated the revolt of his brother Marduk-bēl-ušati with the aid of his ally, Shalmaneser III of Assyria. Marduk-zakir-shumi I returned the favour by helping defeat the revolt of Assur-danin-pal, who aspired to depose Shalmaneser III. [16]
84 BM 90834.jpg Marduk-balassu-iqbi
c. 91829188

(6 years)

Son of Marduk-zakir-shumi I Warred with Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria, who was married to Marduk-balassu-iqbi's sister Shammuramat. Deposed by the Assyrians after reigning 6 years.
85 Baba-aha-iddina
c. 91889190

(2 years)

Unknown Was deposed by Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria, after which Babylonia was left kingless for a few years.
91909201: after an interregnum lasting several years, a sequence of five kings, whose names are not recorded, rule Babylon before the beginning of Ninurta-apla-X's reign
91 Ninurta-apla-X
c. 92019211

(10 years)

Unknown No documents survive from the reign of Ninurta-apla-X.
92 Marduk-bel-zeri
c. 92119221

(10 years)

Unknown Known from a single economic text from the southern city of Udāni. [25]
93 Marduk-apla-usur
c. 92219232

(11 years)

Unknown A Chaldean tribal leader who successfully ascended to the Babylonian throne. Unrelated to previous and later kings. [26]
94 Eriba-Marduk
c. 92329240

(8 years)

Unknown Also a Chaldean, Eriba-Marduk was latergiven the title “re-establisher of the foundations of the land" and was credited with restoring stability to the country after years of turmoil. [27]
95 VA 3031.jpg Nabu-shuma-ishkun
c. 92409253

(12 years)

Unknown Apparently a weak ruler whose reign saw many regional officials gain increasing autonomy. [28]
96 Nabonassar

(14 years)

Overthrew Nabu-shuma-ishkun Brought native Babylonian rule back after a series of Chaldean monarchs. Both the Babylonian Chronicle and the Ptolemaic Canon begin with his accession to the throne.
97 Nabu-nadin-zeri

(2 years)

Son of Nabonassar Deposed and killed by Nabu-shuma-ukin II (who had originally been one of his regional officials) after just two years as king.
98 Nabu-shuma-ukin II

(1 month and 2 days)

Overthrew Nabu-nadin- Deposed and killed by the Chaldean chief Nabu-mukin-zeri after just little over a month as king.
99 MLC 1805.jpg Nabu-mukin-zeri

(3 years)

Overthrew Nabu-shuma-ukin II The political instability of Babylonia was taken advantage of by the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III who invaded the region in 9270. After two years of conflict, Nabu-mukin-zeri was deposed and Tiglath-Pileser took the throne of Babylon.

Tenth dynasty (92729375)

The Tenth dynasty refers to the period of Assyrian rule over Babylon. The kings Sargon, Sennacherib, Ashur-nadin-shumi, Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, Shamash-shum-ukin and Sinsharishkun were part of the contemporary Assyrian royal family (many of them also being the kings of Assyria), the Sargonid dynasty.

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
100 Tiglath-Pileser

(7 years)

King of Assyria, conquered Babylon Neo-Assyrian King who conquered Babylon and was proclaimed as Babylonian king. Enumerated as Tiglath-Pileser III as King of Assyria. [29][30]
101 Shalmaneser

(5 years)

Son of Tiglath-Pileser III Continued the policies of Tiglath-Pileser III but was not as effective militarily, appears to have been a poor administrator who overtaxed the citizens of the empire. Probably assassinated in a coup d'état by his younger brother Sargon II, who took the throne. Enumerated as Shalmaneser V as King of Assyria. [31]
102 Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin 027.jpg Marduk-apla-iddina II
(12 years)
Babylonian rebel Rebelling against the Assyrians, Marduk-apla-iddina successfully maintained Babylonian independence for more than a decade before being defeated by the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II in 9291. He briefly regained power in 9298.
103 Sargon
(5 years)
Son of Tiglath-Pileser III, reconquered Babylon Sargon was a brilliant administrator and military leader who expanded the empire to its greatest extent yet. Sargon's successful campaigns saw the treasury of Assyria grow and he eventually founded a new capital, Dur-Sharrukin ("fortress of Sargon"). He was killed in battle by the Tabal people in Anatolia. Enumerated as Sargon II as King of Assyria. [31]
104 Sanherib-tr-4271.jpg Sennacherib
(2 years)
Son of Sargon Sennacherib is most famous for conquering Israel, Judah and many Greek-speaking parts of Anatolia. Sennacherib moved the Assyrian capital to Nineveh, which he expanded with great gardens and architecture. Sennacherib plundered and desecrated Babylon, seen as great sacrilege, and was assassinated in a conspiracy by two of his sons. [31]
105 Marduk-zakir-shumi II
(a few months)
Babylonian rebel Rebelling against Sennacherib, Marduk-zakir-shumi II's reign was brief and he was soon replaced by Marduk-apla-iddina II, who returned to the throne.
Marduk-apla-iddina II briefly regained power in 9298, ruling for nine months before fleeing and later dying in exile.
106 Bel-ibni
(3 years)
Appointed as vassal king by Sennacherib Appointed by Sennacherib after the Babylonian revolt was defeated in the belief that direct control of Babylon was infeasible, Bel-ibni soon conspired with Assyria's enemies to overthrow Sennacherib, after which he was deposed.
107 Ashur-nadin-shumi
(6 years)
Son of Sennacherib, appointed vassal king Bel-ibni was replaced as king by Ashur-nadin-shumi, Sennacherib's son and heir. A few years thereafter, the Elamites attacked Babylon, capturing and executing Ashur-nadin-shumi. [16]
108 Nergal-ushezib
(1 year)
Babylonian rebel Appointed by the Elamites, Nergal-ushezib was soon defeated in battle near Nippur by Sennacherib, who wished to avenge the death of his son. [16]
109 Mushezib-Marduk
(4 years)
Babylonian rebel Babylonian resistance against Sennacherib continued under Mushezib-Marduk, who was defeated after a brief war and a nine-month siege of Babylon. [16]
Sennacherib destroyed Babylon in 9312, hoping to destroy Babylonia as a political entity. The city's reconstruction was announced by his son and successor Esarhaddon in 9321.
110 Esarhaddon.jpg Esarhaddon
(11 years)
Son of Sennacherib Esarhaddon defeated his brother in a civil war and rebuilt Babylon, declaring that the previous destruction of the city was the will of the gods. Esarhaddon invaded Africa, conquering both Egypt and Kush. His reign saw advancement in medicine, literacy, mathematics, architecture and astronomy. [31]
112 Detail of a stone monument of Shamash-shum-ukin as a basket-bearer. 668-655 BCE. From the temple of Nabu at Borsippa, Iraq and is currently housed in the British Museum.jpg Shamash-shum-ukin
(20 years)
Son of Esarhaddon, vassal king under Ashurbanipal Named heir to the Babylonian throne by Esarhaddon, Shamash-shum-ukin resented the overbearing control of his younger brother Ashurbanipal, who was king of Assyria and took care of most of Shamash-shum-ukin's traditional duties as Babylonian king. He revolted against Ashurbanipal in 9349 and was defeated after a two-year siege of Babylon. [16][32]
113 Kandalanu
(21 years)
Appointed as vassal king by Ashurbanipal One of Ashurbanipal's vassals, Kandalanu was placed on the Babylonian throne as his vassal after Shamash-shum-ukin's revolt was defeated. [16][32]
After Kandalanu's death in 9374, Babylonia experienced a brief interregnum. The Neo-Assyrian king Sinsharishkun briefly controlled the city, as did the usurper Sin-shumu-lishir, but both only officially claimed the title "King of Assyria", not "King of Babylon".

Eleventh dynasty (93759462)

Also called the Neo-Babylonian dynasty, the Dynasty of Nebuchadnezzar or the Chaldean dynasty, liberated Babylon from Assyrian rule.

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
114 Cylinder of Nabopolassar from Babylon, Mesopotamia..JPG Nabopolassar
(21 years)
Rebel, liberated Babylon from Assyrian rule Leader of the Chaldean tribe and an accomlished general, Nabopolassar revolted against Sinsharishkun of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and successfully restored Babylonian independence. Through a series of wars Nabopolassar and his allies, the Medes, destroyed the Neo-Assyrian Empire and in its place he founded the Neo-Babylonian Empire. [33]
115 Nebukadnessar II.jpg Nebuchadnezzar II
(43 years)
Son of Nabopolassar Waged numerous wars in the Levant, many of them against Egypt. Famous for the biblical portrayals of his sieges of Jerusalem and for his impressive building projects in Babylon (for instance, the Ishtar Gate). [33]
116 Amel-Marduk
(2 years)
Son of Nebuchadnezzar II Unpopular with the priests of Marduk at Babylon, Amel-Marduk's reign was very brief. [33]
117 Neriglissar
(4 years)
Usurper, son-in-law of Amel-Marduk A prominent general, recorded as having campaigned in Cilicia in 9444, possibly against the Medes. [33]
118 Labashi-Marduk
(9 months)
Son of Neriglissar A minor when he became king, Labashi-Marduk was deposed and killed after just nine months on the throne. [33]
119 Nabonidus.jpg Nabonidus
(17 years)
Usurper, unrelated to previous kings A prominent official of Assyrian background (hailing from Harran), Nabonidus was the last native king to rule Babylon. He alienated the priesthood in Babylon and left the city to reside in Tayma in 9449, leaving rule in Babylon itself to his son and designated heir, Belshazzar. Defeated by Cyrus of the Achaemenid Empire in 9462, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. [33]

Post-Neo-Babylonian kings

Babylonia was conquered by Cyrus the Great of the Achaemenid Empire in 9462, to never again successfully regain independence. The monarchs of the Achaemenid Empire, and those of succeeding empires, continued to title themselves (and be titled by the inhabitants of Babylon) as Kings of Babylon for centuries. The Akkadian names of the monarchs listed after Nabonidus follow the renderings of the names of these monarchs in the Uruk King List (also known as "King List 5") and the Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Period (also known as BKLHP or “King List 6”).[34] These lists records rulers, identifying them as "Kings of Babylon" until the end of Seleucid rule in Mesopotamia.[35]

Achaemenid dynasty (94629670)

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
120 Olympic Park Cyrus-3.jpg Cyrus the Great
(9 years)
King of Persia, conquered Babylon The first king of the Achaemenid Empire, Cyrus the Great captured Babylon in 9462. In Babylon he left the famous Cyrus Cylinder. Enumerated as Cyrus II as King of Persia. [34]
121 Stela Cambyses Apis closeup.jpg Cambyses
(8 years)
Son of Cyrus the Great Famous for conquering Egypt and for the unpopular policies he conducted in the country (looting temples and ridiculing the local gods). Had served as governor in Babylonia under Cyrus for some years. Enumerated as Cambyses II as King of Persia. [34][36]
122 National Meusem Darafsh 37.JPG Darius I the Great
(36 years)
Son of Hystaspes, a third cousin of Cyrus the Great. Darius was briefly preceded as Achaemenid king by Bardiya, who was not recorded as king by the Babylonians. His early reign saw rebellions against his rule by the Babylonians, perhaps inspired by the recent political turmoil in the empire. [34]
123 Behistun Relief Nidintu-Bêl.jpg Nebuchadnezzar III
(less than a year)
Babylonian rebel, claimed to be the son of Nabonidus Rebelled against Darius I. Originally called Nidintu-Bêl, Nebuchadnezzar claimed to be the son of Nabonidus and was probably connected to Babylonian royalty in some form. Was defeated and executed after Darius besieged Babylon. [37]
124 Behistun relief Arakha.jpg Nebuchadnezzar IV
(1 year)
Babylonian rebel, claimed to be the son of Nabonidus Rebelled against Darius I. Originally an Armenian by the name Arakha, Nebuchadnezzar IV also claimed to be the son of Nabonidus. Darius's second siege of Babylon lasted more than a year and seven months before he successfully regained control of the city. [38]
125 Xerxes Image.png Xerxes the Great
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(23 years)
Son of Darius I Up until Xerxes's time, the Achaemenid rulers had regarded Babylon as a separate entity united with their own kingdom in a personal union, but in response to the second Babylonian revolt against him, Xerxes removed the statue of Marduk in the Esagila and divided the Babylonian satrapy (previously composing almost all of the Neo-Babylonian Empire's territory) into smaller satrapies. Enumerated as Xerxes I as King of Persia. [39]
126 Bel-shimanni
(2 weeks)
Babylonian rebel Rebelled against Xerxes in June or July 9517. Bel-shimanni's revolt was probably short-lived as Babylonian documents relating to his rule only cover a period of about two weeks. [40]
127 Shamash-eriba
(c. 8 months)
Babylonian rebel Rebelled against Xerxes in the summer of 9519. Shamash-eriba's rebellion lasted longer than that of Bel-shimmani and Babylon was successfully retaken by Xerxes in March 9520, after which the city was reprimanded through a destruction of its fortifications and possible devastation done to its temples. Because Xerxes's vengeance, Shamash-eriba was the last person to be crowned in the traditional Babylonian manner; receiving the Babylonian crown out of the hands of Marduk at the Esagila temple during the New Year's Festival. [40]
128 Artaxerxes I at Naqsh-e Rostam.jpg Artaxerxes I Longimanus
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(41 years)
Son of Xerxes Because Xerxes' attempt to end Babylonia as a separate entity, kings from Artaxerxes I onwards (other than rebel leaders) didn't use the title King of Babylon themselves, though Babylonian scribes continued to refer to them as such. [39]
129 Darius II.jpg Darius II
(19 years)
Son of Artaxerxes I Darius II was briefly preceded as Achaemenid king by Xerxes II, who was only recognized in Persia itself, and Sogdianus, who was only recognized in Persia and Elam (neither was recognized in Babylon).
130 Artaxerxes II relief portrait detail.jpg Artaxerxes II Mnemnon
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(46 years)
Son of Darius II Was faced with the revolt of his brother Cyrus the Younger, which he defeated, wars with the Greeks and the Great Satraps' Revolt.
131 Artaxerxes III of Persia.jpg Artaxerxes III Ochus
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(20 years)
Son of Artaxerxes II Successfully regained Egypt after it had revolted against Persian rule after the death of Darius II. Also had to deal with revolts from numerous satrapies and vassal states.
132 Artaxerxes IV Arses.jpg Artaxerxes IV Arses
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(2 years)
Son of Artaxerxes III Poisoned and killed by the eunuch Bagoas, who also killed the entirety of his family and put Darius III on the throne of the Achaemenid Empire. [41]
133 Nidin-Bel
c. 9665
(less than a year)
Babylonian rebel Mentioned only in the Uruk King List, Nidin-Bel was likely a local rebel who seized control in the chaotic aftermath of Artaxerxes IV's death, only to later be defeated by Darius III. [34]
134 Darius III of Persia.jpg Darius III
(6 years)
Great-grandson of Darius II Darius III was the last (or penultimate if one counts Artaxerxes V) king of the Achaemenid Empire and was defeated by Alexander the Great of Macedon after reigning only six years. [34]

Argead dynasty (96709692)

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
135 Alexander III of Macedon.jpg Alexander I the Great
(8 years)
King of Macedon, conquered Babylon Alexander captured most of the territory of the Achaemenid Empire in his famous wars. Under Alexander, Babylon once more became an imperial capital, being the main capital of his large empire. Enumerated as Alexander III as King of Macedon. [34][42]
136 Philip III Arrhidaios.jpg Philip Arrhidaeus
(6 years)
Brother of Alexander the Great The elder half-brother of Alexander, Philip suffered from learning difficulties and was proclaimed king as a figurehead in Macedon. Enumerated as Philip III as King of Macedon. [34]
137 Alexandros IV Aigos Budge.png Alexander II
(14 years)
Son of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great's posthumous son, Alexander Aegus was recognized as his successor throughout the empire. Alexander Aegus is listed as king between Antigonus and Seleucus I in King List 6. Enumerated as Alexander IV as King of Macedon. [35]
138 Antigone le Borgne (pièce).jpg Antigonus Monophthalmus
(6 years)
Macedonian general A Macedonian general and one of the Diadochi, Antigonus is recorded as the king between Philip Arrhidaeus and Seleucus I in King List 5. Babylonian sources suggest that his rule was considered illegal and that he should have accepted the sovereignty of Alexander's son Alexander. [34][35]

Seleucid dynasty (96909860)

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
139 Seleuco I Nicatore.JPG Seleucus I Nicator
(31 years)
Macedonian general Seleucus only proclaimed himself king in 9696, but the Babylonians dated his reign from 9690. After becoming king, Seleucus moved the capital of his empire to the newly built city Seleucia. Most of the Greek citizens in Babylon, having settled there after Alexander's conquests, moved to the new city. [34][42]
140 Antiochus I Soter.jpg Antiochus I Soter
(22 years)
Son of Seleucus I The last ruler to be attributed the ancient Mesopotamian title of King of the Universe, Antiochus I was the last monarch from which a full Akkadian royal titulary is known, presented in the Antiochus Cylinder. [34][43]
141 AntiochusIIMET.jpg Antiochus II Theos
(15 years)
Son of Antiochus I No activities recorded from Babylon. Antiochus II's reign saw war against Egypt and revolts from vassals in the eastern parts of his empire. [34]
142 Coin of Seleucus II Callinicus (cropped), Antioch mint.jpg Seleucus II Callinicus
(21 years)
Son of Antiochus II No activities recorded from Babylon. Seleucus II's reign saw continued political turmoil and fragmentation. Ptolemy III of Egypt invaded his kingdom and almost reached Babylon. [34]
143 SeleucusIII coin, one side.jpg Seleucus III Ceraunus
(2 years)
Son of Seleucus II No activities recorded from Babylon. Seleucus III's reign was brief and marred with unsuccessful wars against Pergamon. [35]
144 Male head wearing a head-band resembling king of Syria Antiochus III (223–187 BC), late 1st century BC–early 1st century AD, Louvre Museum (7462828632).jpg Antiochus III the Great
(35 years)
Son of Seleucus II Present at Babylon at the time he was proclaimed king, Antiochus III was one of the Seleucid Empire's greatest kings. He is recorded as having resettled two thousand Jewish families from Babylonia into the Hellenistic regions of Lydia and Phrygia. [35]
145 Seleucus IV Philopator.png Seleucus IV Philopator
(8 years)
Son of Antiochus III No activities recorded from Babylon. Seleucus IV was plagued by financial difficulties owing to war reparations to be paid to the Romans. [35]
146 Antiochus IV Epiphanes - Altes Museum - Berlin - Germany 2017.jpg Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(11 years)
Son of Antiochus III Antiochus IV introduced a new colony of Greek citizens in Babylon. These Greeks were recognized by the Babylonians themselves as a separate community in the city (called pulitē, a rendering of the Greek word politai, "citizen"). [35][42]
147 Antiochus V Eupator, coin, front side.jpg Antiochus V Eupator
(3 years)
Son of Antiochus IV No activities recorded from Babylon. Antiochys V, a minor, was crowned despite the fact that Demetrius I (his successor) was generally recognized as the rightful king because Demetrius was in Roman captivity at the time. Once Demetrius escaped he was proclaimed king and Antiochus V was executed.
148 Demetrius I.png Demetrius I Soter
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(11 years)
Son of Seleucus IV Demetrius I was given his nickname Soter (meaning "saviour") by the population of Babylonia because he had defeated the usurper Timarchus who had attempted to seize control of the region. [35][44]
149 Coin of Alexander I Balas, Antioch mint.jpg Alexander III Balas
(5 years)
Usurper, allegedly the son of Antiochus IV No activities recorded from Babylon. A usurper of uncertain relation, Alexander Balas seized the Seleucid throne from Demetrius I, but would only rule for five years before in turn being defeated by Demetrius II.
150 Coin of Demetrius II Nicator (cropped), Ptolemais in Phoenicia mint.jpg Demetrius II Nicator
[Full name in Akkadian not preserved]
(4 years)
Son of Demetrius I Lost control of Babylonia to the Parthians, Demetrius II is the final ruler to be listed in King List 6. [35]

King List 6 ends, after Demetrius II, with a passage referencing "Arsaces the king"[n 1], indicating that the list was created in the early years of Parthian rule in Mesopotamia. Because the list is so fragmentary, it isn't clear if this Arsaces was formally considered a King of Babylon (as the Persian and Hellenic rulers had been) by the list's author.[45]

Arsacid dynasty and final kings of Babylon (98609921)

Under the rule of the Parthian Empire, Babylon was gradually abandoned as a major urban center and the old Akkadian culture diminished. In the first century or so of Parthian rule, Babylonian culture was still alive, and there are records of individuals in the city with traditional Babylonian names, such as Bel-aḫḫe-uṣur and Nabu-mušetiq-uddi (mentioned as the receivers of silver in a 9874 legal document).[46] At this time, there were two major recognized groups living in Babylon: the Babylonians themselves and the Greeks, having settled there during the centuries of Argead and Seleucid rule. These groups were governed by separate local (e.g. pertaining to just the city) administrative councils; the Babylonian citizens were governed by the šatammu and the kiništu and the Greeks by the epistates. Although no king lists younger than King List 6 are known, documents from the early years of Parthian rule suggest a continued recognition of at least the early Parthian kings as Babylonian monarchs.[47]

No. Image King Reign Succession Notes Ref
151 Coin of Mithradates I of Parthia, Seleucia mint.jpg Mithridates I the Great
(9 years)
King of Parthia, conquered Babylon Babylonian records from Mithridates I's reign mention that within two months of the Parthian conquest, Babylonian authorities were summoned to Hyrcania, Parthia's heartland, and new functionaries were appointed in the city. [48]
152 Coin of Phraates II (cropped), Seleucia mint.jpg Phraates
(2 years)
Son of Mithridates I Lost control of Babylon to the Seleucids in 9871 after a series of battles and died in 9874. Enumerated as Phraates II as King of Parthia. [49]
From 9871 to 9874, the Seleucids once more controlled Babylon but there are no references to them as Babylonian kings in Babylonian documents from this time.
153 Hyspaosines.jpg Hyspaosines
(a few months)
Seleucid satrap A former Seleucid satrap, Hyspaosines proclaimed himself king, becoming the first king of Characene in 9860, a Parthian vassal kingdom. He was recognized as "King of Babylon" by the Babylonians for a few months in 9874 after he captured the city. He is recorded as having gifted a "throne" to the god Bel in the temple Esagila, indicating the continued presence of old Mesopotamian religious institutions. [50]
154 Coin of Artabanus I of Parthia (cropped, part 2), Seleucia mint.jpg Artabanus
Aršáka and Ártabana
(3 years)
Brother of Mithridates I Artabanus's reign was a period of turmoil in the Parthian Empire, which saw a weakening of central control. Most of his brief reign was spent fighting nomads in the east. Enumerated as Artabanus I as King of Parthia. [51]
155 Coin of Mithradates II of Parthia (cropped, part 2), Ecbatana mint.jpg Mithridates II the Great
(3 years)
Son of Artabanus Babylonian records from Mithridates II's reign tell that the Babylonians were called upon to aid in building projects in Seleucia. The kiništu is mentioned, indicating that it was still functioning. [52]
156 Coin of Gotarzes I (2, cropped), Ectbatana mint.jpg Gotarzes
Aršáka and Gutárza
99109914 or 9921
(4 or 11 years)
Son of Mithridates II Proclaimed as King at Babylon during a period of turmoil in the Parthian Empire. Gotarzes is the last known ruler to be mentioned as Babylonian king in Akkadian-language documents. Enumerated as Gotarzes I as King of Parthia. [53][54]

See also


  1. Arsaces was the regnal name used by all Parthian kings. The Parthian king who succeeded Demetrius II as the ruler of Mesopotamia was Mithridates I.


  1. BM 33332.
  2. BM 38122.
  3. The text is in a private collection and was published in: Arno Poebel (1955). "Second Dynasty of Isin According to a New King-List Tablet". Assyriological Studies. University of Chicago Press (15).
  4. Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie. 6. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 90. ISBN 3-11-010051-7.
  5. Kuhrt 1997, p. 12.
  6. Mieroop 2015, p. 4.
  7. Sagona & Zimansky 2009, p. 251.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 Chronology.
  9. "T12K1.htm". Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  10. "T12K2.htm". Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  11. Year names of Sabium of Babylon - CDLI
  12. Year names of Sabium of Babylon - CDLI
  13. A history of Babylonia and Assyria, Volume 1, Robert William Rogers, Eaton & Mains, 1900. pp. 387-388.
  14. Beck, Roger B.; Black, Linda; Krieger, Larry S.; Naylor, Phillip C.; Shabaka, Dahia Ibo (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 978-0-395-87274-1. OCLC 39762695.
  15. Brinkman 1976, pp. 97–98.
  16. 16.00 16.01 16.02 16.03 16.04 16.05 16.06 16.07 16.08 16.09 16.10 16.11 16.12 16.13 16.14 16.15 16.16 16.17 16.18 16.19 16.20 16.21 16.22 16.23 16.24 16.25 16.26 16.27 16.28 16.29 16.30 16.31 16.32 16.33 16.34 Synchronic King List.
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 17.14 17.15 17.16 17.17 17.18 17.19 Mieroop 2015, p. 355.
  18. J. A. Brinkman (1976). "* Meli-Šipak". Materials and Studies for Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 253–259.
  19. Brinkman 1999, pp. 183–184.
  20. 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 Mieroop 2015, p. 356.
  21. Meissner 1999, p. 8.
  22. Brinkman 1982, pp. 296–297.
  23. J. A. Brinkman (1982). "Babylonia, c. 1000 – 748 B.C.". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; N. G. L. Hammond; E. Sollberger (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History (Volume 3, Part 1). Cambridge University Press. pp. 296–297.
  24. Tremper Longman (July 1, 1990). Fictional Akkadian autobiography: a generic and comparative study. Eisenbrauns. pp. 153–154, 161.
  25. Tablet YBC 11546 in the Yale Babylonian Collection.
  26. Dynastic Chronicle (ADD 888) vi 3’-5’.
  27. J. A. Brinkman (1968). A political history of post-Kassite Babylonia, 1158-722 B.C. Analecta Orientalia. pp. 221–224.
  28. Karen Radner; Eleanor Robson (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 740.
  29. Tadmor 1994, p. 29.
  30. Frye, Wolfram & Dietz 2016.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 Mark 2014.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Johns 1913, p. 124–125.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 The Latin Library.
  34. 34.00 34.01 34.02 34.03 34.04 34.05 34.06 34.07 34.08 34.09 34.10 34.11 34.12 Uruk King List.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 35.7 35.8 CM 4.
  36. Dandamayev 1990, pp. 726-729.
  37. Holland 2007, p. 46.
  38. Herodotus III, 152
  39. 39.0 39.1 Dandamaev 1989, pp. 185–186.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Dandamaev 1993, p. 41.
  41. LeCoq 1986, p. 548.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Spek 2001, p. 446.
  43. Stevens 2014, p. 72.
  44. Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911, p. 983.
  45. Sachs & Wiseman 1954, p. 209.
  46. Spek 2001, p. 449.
  47. Spek 2001, p. 451.
  48. Spek 2001, p. 450.
  49. Shayegan 2011, pp. 128-129.
  50. Spek 2001, pp. 452–453.
  51. Schippmann 1986a, pp. 647–650.
  52. Spek 2001, p. 454.
  53. Spek 2001, p. 455.
  54. Assar 2006, p. 62.

Cited bibliography

Cited web sources