List of pharaohs

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List of pharaohs on Wikipedia

Pharaoh of Egypt
Double crown.svg
The Pschent combined the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt.
Pharaoh.svg
A typical depiction of a pharaoh.
Details
StyleFive-name titulary
First monarchNarmer (a.k.a. Menes)
Last monarch
[2]
Formationc. 6900
Abolition
  • 9658
    (last native pharaoh)[1]
  • 9971
    (last Greek pharaohs)
  • 314 AD
    (last Roman Emperor to be called Pharaoh)[2]
ResidenceVaries by era
AppointerDivine right

The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 6900. However, the specific title "Pharaoh" was not used to address the kings of Egypt by their contemporaries until the rule of Merneptah in the 19th Dynasty, c. 8800. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties.

Egypt was continually governed, at least in part, by native pharaohs for approximately 2500 years, until it was conquered by the Kingdom of Kush in the late 93rd century, whose rulers adopted the traditional pharaonic titulature for themselves. Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time.

Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 9669, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 9971. Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daia in 314 AD.

The dates given in this list of pharaohs are approximate. They are based primarily on the conventional chronology of Ancient Egypt, mostly based on the Digital Egypt for Universities[3] database developed by the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, but alternative dates taken from other authorities may be indicated separately.

Ancient Egyptian king lists

Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records, including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and historians alike call for caution in regard to the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.[4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective.

The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]

  • Den seal impressions (1st Dynasty); found on a cylinder seal in Den's tomb. It lists all 1st Dynasty kings from Narmer to Den by their Horus names.
  • Palermo stone (5th Dynasty); carved on an olivine-basalt slab. Broken into pieces and thus today incomplete.
  • Giza King List (6th Dynasty); painted with red, green and black ink on gypsum and cedar wood. Very selective.
  • South Saqqara Stone (6th Dynasty); carved on a black basalt slab. Very selective.
  • Karnak King List (18th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Abydos King List of Seti I (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting the First Intermediate Period.
  • Abydos King List of Ramesses II (19th Dynasty); carved on limestone. Very selective.
  • Saqqara King List (19th Dynasty), carved on limestone. Very detailed, but omitting most kings of the 1st Dynasty for unknown reasons.
  • Turin King List (19th Dynasty); written with red and black ink on papyrus. Likely the most complete king-list in history, today damaged.
  • Manetho's Aegyptiaca (Greek Period); possibly written on papyrus. The original writings are lost today and many anecdotes assigned to certain kings seem fictitious.

Predynastic period

Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. The following list may be incomplete:

Name Image Comments Reign
Hedju Hor
Hedju.png
Only known from two clay jugs from Tura
Around 6750
Ny-Hor
Serekhs Ny Hor.jpg
Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada
Around 67506800
Hsekiu / Seka
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[6]
Unknown
Khayu
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[7]
Unknown
Tiu / Teyew
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[8]
Unknown
Thesh / Tjesh
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[9]
Unknown
Neheb
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[10]
Unknown
Wazner
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[11]
Ruled around or earlier than 6820
Hat-Hor [de; es]
100px
Around 6820
Mekh
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[12]
Unknown
(destroyed)
Palermo stone predynastic series.jpg
Only known from the Palermo stone[12]
Unknown
Double Falcon
Serech Double-Falcon.png
May also have ruled in Upper Egypt
Naqada III
(69th century)
Wash [de]
EB1911 Egypt - Early Art - King Narmer, Slate Palette.jpg
Only known from the Narmer Palette[13] Around 6850
Naqada III

Upper Egypt

Regrouped here are predynastic rulers of Upper Egypt belonging to the late Naqada III period, sometimes informally described as Dynasty 00.

Name Image Comments Reign
Gazelle
In 6750.
Naqada III
Finger Snail [de]
He was a legendary king of Upper Egypt. He was the first king of Upper Egypt who died in 6750.
Naqada III
Fish[14]
Only known from artifacts that bare his mark, Around 67506780.
Naqada III
Elephant[15]
Pen-abu.png
Around 67606780.
Naqada III
Animal[16]
Naqada III
Stork[17][18]
Naqada III
Canide[16]
Naqada III
Bull
Naqada III
Scorpion I
First ruler of Upper Egypt, Around 67506800.
Naqada III

Predynastic rulers: Dynasty 0

The following list of predynastic rulers may be incomplete. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0".

Name Image Comments Dates
Iry-Hor
Iry Hor name.jpg
Correct chronological position unclear.[19]
Around 6830
Crocodile
Tarkhan crocodile.gif
Potentially read Shendjw; identity and existence are disputed.[20]
Around 6830
Ka
Ka vessel.JPG
Maybe read Sekhen rather than Ka. Correct chronological position unclear.[21]
Around 6830
Scorpion II
Kingscorpion.jpg
Potentially read Serqet; possibly the same person as Narmer.[22]
Around 6830

Early Dynastic Period

The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 6850 to 7315.

First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from around 6850 to 7110.

Name Image Comments Dates
Narmer
NarmerPalette-CloseUpOfNarmer-ROM.png
Believed to be the same person as Menes and to have unified Upper and Lower Egypt.
Around 6850
Hor-Aha
GlazedFiaenceVesselFragmentNameOfAha-BritishMuseum-August21-08.jpg
Son of Narmer
Greek form: Athotís.
Around 6875
Djer
Djer stela retouched.jpg
Son of Hor-Aha
Greek form: Uenéphes (after his Gold name In-nebw); His name and titulary appear on the Palermo Stone. His tomb was later thought to be the legendary tomb of Osiris.
54 years[23]
Djet
Egypte louvre 290.jpg
Brother of Djer
Greek form: Usapháis.
10 years[24]
Den
Den label.jpg
Son of Djen
Greek form: Kénkenes (after the ramesside diction of his birthname: Qenqen[25]). First pharaoh depicted wearing the double crown of Egypt, first pharaoh with a full niswt bity-name.
42 years[24]
Anedjib
Anedjib Closeup.jpg
Grandson of Djen & nephew of Den
Greek form: Miebidós. Known for his ominous nebwy-title.[26]
10 years
Semerkhet
PotterySherdWithNameOfSemerkhet-PetrieMuseum-August21-08.jpg
Son of Anedjib or brother of him
Greek form: Semempsés. First Egyptian ruler with a fully developed Nebty name. His complete reign is preserved on the Cairo stone.
8½ years[24]
Qa'a
CroppedStelaOfQaa.JPG
Son of Semerkhet
Greek form: Bienéches. Ruled very long, his tomb is the last one with subsidiary tombs.
34 years
Sneferka
Sneferka.png
Unknown son of Qa’a or just random person?
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 7100
Horus Bird
BirdFraegment.png
Brother? Unknown maybe randomly person?
Very short reign, correct chronological position unknown.
Around 7100

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 7110 to 7315.

Name Image Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy[27]
Hotepsekhemwy.jpg
Manetho names him Boëthos and claims that under this ruler an earthquake killed many people.
15 years
Nebra[28]
Nebra Hotepsekhemwy vase.png
Greek form: Kaíechós (after the ramesside cartouche name Kakaw). First ruler who uses the sun-symbol in his royal name, could be identical to king Weneg.
14 years
Nynetjer[29]
Nynetjer 2.jpg
Greek form: Binóthris. May have divided Egypt between his successors, allegedly allowed women to rule like pharaohs.
43–45 years
Weneg-Nebty[30]
Weneg.png
Greek form: Ougotlas/Tlás. Could be an independent ruler or the same as Peribsen, Sekhemib-Perenmaat or Raneb.
Around 7260
Senedj[31]
Abydos KL 02-05 n13.jpg
Greek form: Sethenes. Possibly the same person as Peribsen. This, however, is highly disputed.[32]
47 years (Supposedly)
Seth-Peribsen
Peribsen.jpg
Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon. He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Some scholars believe that he ruled over a divided Egypt.[33]
Unknown
Sekhemib-Perenmaat
CalciteVesselFragmentNameOfSekhemibPerenmmat-BritishMuseum-August21-08 retouched.jpg
Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen.[34]
Around 7280
Neferkara I
Abydos KL 03-05 n19.jpg
Greek form: Néphercherés. Known only from ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested.
25 years(according to Manetho)
Neferkasokar
Neferkasokar-inscription.png
Greek form: Sesóchris. Known only from Ramesside king lists, not archaeologically attested. Old Kingdom legends claim that this ruler saved Egypt from a long lasting drought.[35]
8 years
Hudjefa I
Hudjefasaqqara.png
Known only from ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in ramesside times.
11 years(According to the Turin Canon)
Khasekhem(wy)[36][37]
Khasekhem oxford2.jpg
Greek form: Chenerés. May have reunified Egypt after a period of trouble, his serekh name is unique for presenting both Horus and Set.
18 years

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. The kingdom ruled from 7315 to 7820.

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 7315 to 7388.

Name Image Comments Dates
Djoser[38][39]
Djoser.jpg
Hellenized names Sesorthos and Tosórthros. Commissioned the first Pyramid in Egypt, created by chief architect and scribe Imhotep.
19 or 28 years, possibly around 7350[40]
Sekhemkhet[41]
Sekhemkhet.png
Greek form: Tyréis (after the ramesside cartouche name for Sekhemkhet, Teti). In the necropolis of his unfinished step pyramid, the remains of a 2-year old infant were found.[42]
73527358
Sanakht
ReliefFragmentOfPharaohSanakht-BritishMuseum-August21-08.jpg
Likely to be identified with the throne name Nebka; Hellenized names Necherôchis and Necherôphes. May have reigned 6 years if identified with the penultimate king of the Dynasty on the Turin canon.
Around 7350
Khaba
KhabaCloseUp.jpg
Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid, could be identical with Huni.
73587364
Huni[43]
Huni-StatueHead BrooklynMuseum.png
Greek form: Áches. Could be the same as Qahedjet or Khaba. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt. Huni was for a long time credited with the building of the pyramid of Meidum. This, however, is disproved by New Kingdom graffiti that praise king Snofru, not Huni.
73647388

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 7388 to 7503.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sneferu
Snofru Eg Mus Kairo 2002.png
Greek form: Sóris. Reigned 48 years, giving him enough time to build the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid. For a long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Sneferu's work, but that of king Huni. Ancient Egyptian documents describe Sneferu as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler.[44]
73887412
Khufu
Khufu CEM.jpg
Greek form: Cheops and Suphis. Built the Great pyramid of Giza. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods.
74127435
Djedefre
Djedefre-head.jpg
Greek form: Rátoises. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash. However, this pyramid is no longer extant; it is believed the Romans re-purposed the materials from which it was made.
74357443
Khafre
Khafre statue.jpg
Greek form: Chéphren and Suphis II. His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
74437469
Baka/Bauefrê
Vue-grande-excavation.jpg
Greek form: Bikheris. Could be the owner of the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan.
Around 7430
Menkaure
MenkauraAndQueen-CloseUpOfKingsFace MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Greek form: Menchéres. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. A legend claims that his only daughter died due to an illness and Menkaura buried her in a golden coffin in shape of a cow.
74697498
Shepseskaf
Abydos KL 04-06 n25.jpg
Greek form: Seberchéres. Owner of the Mastabat el-Fara'un.
74987503
Thamphthis
According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional.
Around 7500

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 7503 to 7656.

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkaf
Userkaf.jpg
Buried in a pyramid in Saqqara. Built the first solar temple at Abusir.
75037510
Sahure
Egypt sahura and god.jpg
Moved the royal necropolis to Abusir, where he built his pyramid.
75117524
Neferirkare Kakai
Neferirkare Kakai 2.png
Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer
75247534
Neferefre
Raneferef.jpg
Son of Neferirkare
75417543
Shepseskare
Shepseskare Cylinder Seal.png
Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure.[45]
A few months
Nyuserre Ini
Niuserre BrooklynMuseum.png
Brother to Neferefre, built extensively in the Abusir necropolis.
75567579
Menkauhor Kaiu
Menkauhor CG 40.jpg
Last pharaoh to build a sun temple
75797587
Djedkare Isesi
DjedkareIsesi-GoldCylanderSeal MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian administration. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne.
75877626
Unas
Unas stelae.jpg
The Pyramid of Unas is inscribed with the earliest instance of the pyramid texts
76267656

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 7656 to 7820.

Name Image Comments Dates
Teti
Teti-SistrumInscribedWithName MetropolitanMuseum.png
According to Manetho, he was murdered.
76567668
Userkare
Abydos KL 06-02 n35.jpg
Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of Teti
76687669
Meryre Pepi I
Kneeling statue of Pepy I.jpg
76697718
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
Hidden treasures 09.jpg
77187723
Neferkare Pepi II
AnkhnesmeryreII-and-Son-PepiII-SideView BrooklynMuseum.png
Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Alternatively, may have reigned "only" 64 years.
77237817
Neferka
Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler.
78017802
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[46]
Abydos KL 06-06 n39.jpg
Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II.
1 year and 1 month c. 7817
Neitiqerty Siptah
Abydos KL 07-01 n40.jpg
Identical with Netjerkare. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen Nitocris of Herodotus and Manetho.[47] Sometimes classified as the first king of the combined 7th/8th Dynasties. Short reign: c. 78177820

First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period (78207941) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. The union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

The kings of the 7th and 8th Dynasties, who represented the successors of the 6th Dynasty, tried to hold onto some power in Memphis but owed much of it to powerful nomarchs. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Around 7946, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years (possibly 7820 to 7841). They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[48] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era.[49]

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkare
Abydos KL 07-02 n41.jpg
Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit.[50][51][52]
Probably short, Around 7820
Neferkare II
Abydos KL 07-03 n42.jpg
Unknown
Neferkare (III) Neby
Abydos KL 07-04 n43.jpg
Attested by inscriptions in the tomb of his mother Ankhesenpepi, started the construction of a pyramid in Saqqara.
Unknown
Djedkare Shemai
Abydos KL 07-05 n44.jpg
Unknown
Neferkare (IV) Khendu
Abydos KL 07-06 n45.jpg
Unknown
Merenhor
Abydos KL 07-07 n46.jpg
Unknown
Neferkamin
Abydos KL 07-08 n47.jpg
Unknown
Nikare
Abydos KL 07-09 n48.jpg
Possibly attested by a cylinder-seal.
Unknown
Neferkare (V) Tereru
Abydos KL 07-10 n49.jpg
Unknown
Neferkahor
Abydos KL 07-11 n50.jpg
Attested by a cylinder seal.
Unknown
Neferkare (VI) Pepiseneb
Abydos KL 07-12 n51.jpg
Unknown to 7830
Neferkamin Anu
Abydos KL 07-13 n52.jpg
Around 7831
Qakare Ibi
Abydos KL 07-14 n53.jpg
Built a pyramid at Saqqara inscribed with the last known instance of the Pyramid Texts
78327834
Neferkaure
Abydos KL 07-15 n54.jpg
Attested by one to three decrees from the temple of Min at Coptos.
78347838
Neferkauhor Khuwihapi
Abydos KL 07-16 n55.jpg
Attested by eight decrees from the temple of Min and an inscription in the tomb of Shemay.
78387840
Neferirkare
Abydos KL 07-17 n56.jpg
Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min.
78407841

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty[53] ruled from 7841 to 7871. The Turin King List has 18 kings reigning in the Ninth and Tenth Dynasties. Of these, twelve names are missing and four are partial.[53]

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety I (Acthoes I)
Egypte louvre 246 panier.jpg
Manetho states that Achthoes founded this dynasty.
7841–unknown
Unknown
Neferkare VII
Unknown
Nebkaure Khety II (Acthoes II)
Nebkaure Khety Petrie.png
Unknown
Senenh— or Setut
Unknown
Unknown
Mery—
Unknown
Shed—
Unknown
H—
Unknown

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 7871 to 7961.

Name Image Comments Dates
Meryhathor
Graffito Meryhathor Djehutynakht Hatnub.jpg
7871–unknown
Neferkare VIII
Between 7871 and 7961
Wahkare Khety (Acthoes III)
Coffin Nefri Wahkare Lacau.jpg
Unknown
Merykare
Stele Anpuemhat Quibell.png
Unknown–7961

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 7867 to 8010. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Intef the Elder Iry-pat
Prince Intef Petrie.png
Theban nomarch serving an unnamed king, later considered a founding figure of the 11th Dynasty.
Unknown

The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II.

Name Image Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Statue Mentuhotep-aa by Khruner.jpg
Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently.
Unknown–7867
Sehertawy Intef I
Intef I.jpg
First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name.
78677884
Wahankh Intef II
Funerary stele of Intef II.jpg
Conquered Abydos and its nome.
78847932
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
Silsileh close up.jpg
Conquered Asyut and possibly moved further North up to the 17th nome.[54]
79327941

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom (79418199) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time.

Eleventh Dynasty continued

The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II[55]
Mentuhotep Closeup.jpg
Gained all Egypt c. 7986, Middle Kingdom begins, becomes first pharaoh of Middle Kingdom.
79417991
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[56]
Mentuhotep-OsirideStatue-CloseUp MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Commanded the first expedition to Punt of the Middle Kingdom
79918003
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[57]
Relief Mentuhotep IV Lepsius.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. May have been overthrown by his vizier and successor Amenemhat I.
80048010

Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia

Name Image Comments Dates
Segerseni[58]
Inscription Segerseni Gauthier.png
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 81st century
Qakare Ini[58]
Inscription Qakare Ini.png
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 81st century
Iyibkhentre[58]
Inscription Iyibkhentre Gauthier 02.jpg
Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Only attested in Lower Nubia, most likely an usurper at the end of the Eleventh Dynasty or early Twelfth Dynasty.
Early 81st century

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 8010 to 8199.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sehetepibre Amenemhat I[59][60]
Amenhet.jpg
Possibly overthrew Mentuhotep IV. Assassinated by his own guards.
80108039
Kheperkare Senusret I[61] (Sesostris I)
Ägyptisches Museum Leipzig 104.jpg
Built the White Chapel
80308075
Nubkaure Amenemhat II[62]
Louvre sphinx.jpg
Ruled for at least 35 years.
80728106
Khakheperre Senusret II[63] (Sesostris II)
Statue Senusret II Lille.jpg
81048123
Khakaure Senusret III[64] (Sesostris III)
GD-EG-Louxor-116.JPG
Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs.
81238141
Nimaatre Amenemhat III[65]
Amenemhet III, basalto, seconda metà del XIX sec. ac. 02.JPG
81418186
Maakherure Amenemhat IV[66]
AmmenemesIV(Front)-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg
Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Knossos.
81868194
Sobekkare Sobekneferu[67]
Louvre 0320O7 01.jpg
The first and rare female ruler.
81948199

The position of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra, is uncertain. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty.

Second Intermediate Period

The Second Intermediate Period (81998451) is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 8195 or toward the middle of it in c. 8290, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 8280 took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Sometime around 8350 the Hyksos, perhaps led by Salitis the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, conquered Memphis, thereby terminating the 13th dynasty. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter.

Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom.

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 8199 to around 8352 and lasted 153 or 154 years according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep I
Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Amenemhat.jpg
Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is well attested. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies
81998201[68]
Sonbef
AmenemhatSenebefCylinderPetrie.png
Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of Amenemhat IV[68]
82018205[68]
Nerikare
Stele of Nerikare.png
Attested on a Nile record from Semna.[69]
8205
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V
Amenemhat V.jpg
Ruled for 3 to 4 years[68]
82058208[68]
Ameny Qemau
Plaque Qemaw by Khruner.jpg
Buried in his pyramid in south Dashur
82068209
Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef
Hetep-ib-Re-mace.png
Also called Sehotepibre
82098211
Iufni
Only attested on the Turin canon
Very short reign, possibly c. 82118213[68]
Seankhibre Amenemhet VI
Table CG23040 Kamal.jpg
Attested on the Turin Canon.[70]
82138216
Semenkare Nebnuni
Stele Nebnuni by Khruner.jpg
Attested on the Turin Canon[71]
82168218[68] or 8262[72]
Sehetepibre Sewesekhtawy
Cylinder Sehetepibre by Khruner.jpg
Attested on the Turin Canon[73]
82188220[68]
Sewadjkare
Known only from the Turin canon 8220
Nedjemibre
Known only from the Turin canon
7 months, 8221[68] or 8265[72]
Khaankhre Sobekhotep
Louvre 032007 40.jpg
Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies
Reigned c. 3 years, 82218224[68]
Renseneb
4 months
8224[68]
Awybre Hor I
Ka Statue of horawibra.jpg
Famous for his intact tomb treasure and Ka statue
Reigned 1 year and 6 months, 82248226[68]
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw
Khabaw2.png
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre
Estimated reign 3 years, 82268229[68]
Djedkheperew
OsirisBed.jpg
Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with Khendjer
Estimated reign 2 years, 82298231[68]
Sebkay
Kay Amenemhat.jpg
Possibly two kings, Seb and his son Kay.[68]
Sedjefakare
Cylinder Sedjefakare Petrie.jpg
A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents.
5 to 7 years or 3 years, 82328235[68]
Khutawyre Wegaf
Wegaf Rubensohn.png
Founder of the dynasty in old studies
Around 8234
Khendjer
Khendjer.jpg
Possibly the first semitic pharaoh, built a pyramid at Saqqara
Minimum 4 years and 3 months c. 8236
Imyremeshaw
Imyremeshaw.jpg
Attested by two colossal statues
Reigned less than 10 years, starting 8242[68] or 8290.[74]
Sehetepkare Intef IV
Hotepkare cylinder Petrie.png
Less than 10 years
Seth Meribre
Stele JE 35256 Randall-MacIver.png
Reign ended 8252
Sekhemresewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
SobekhotepIII-DualRelief BrooklynMuseum.png
4 years and 2 months
82468250
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I
Neferhotep I 2.jpg
11 years
82508261
Menwadjre Sihathor
Turiner2.png
Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently.
8262[68]
Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV
Statue of Sobekhotep IV.jpg
10 or 11 years
82618271
Merhotepre Sobekhotep V
Statue of Merhotepre Sobekhotep V.jpg
8271
Khahotepre Sobekhotep VI
KneelingStatueOfSobekhotepV-AltesMuseum-Berlin.png
4 years 8 months and 29 days
Around 8276
Wahibre Ibiau
Scarab of King Ia-ib LACMA M.86.313.10 (2 of 2).jpg
10 years and 8 months
82768287 or 82898300[68]
Merneferre Ay I
Merneferre Ay.jpg
Longest reigning king of the dynasty
23 years, 8 months and 18 days, 83008324[68] or 82878310
Merhotepre Ini
Merhotepre Ini.png
Possibly a son of his predecessor
2 Years 3 or 4 Months and 9 days, 83248326[68] or 83108312
Sankhenre Sewadjtu
Attested only on the Turin canon
3 years and 2–4 months, 83268329[68]
Mersekhemre Ined
Neferhotep II 2.jpg
May be the same person as Neferhotep II
3 years, 83298332[68]
Sewadjkare Hori
5 years
5 years
Merkawre Sobekhotep VII
Merkawre Sobekhotep.png
2 years and 6 months[68]
83378338[68]
Seven kings
Names lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon[68]
8338 –?[68]
Mer[...]re
Unknown
Merkheperre
100px
Some time between 8338 and 8352[68]
Merkare
Attested only on the Turin canon
Some time between 8338 and 8352[68]
Name lost
Unknown
Sewadjare Mentuhotep V
Sewadjare Mentuhotep.png
Around 8345[68]
[...]mosre
Unknown
Ibi [...]maatre
Unknown
Hor[...] [...]webenre
Unknown
Se...kare
Unknown
Unknown
Seheqenre Sankhptahi
Sankhptahi.jpg
May be the son of his predecessor
Between 8338-8352
...re
Unknown
Unknown
Se...enre
Unknown
Unknown–8352[68]

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Dedumose I
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty
Around 8347
Dedumose II
Djedneferre Dedumose.png
Possibly a king of the 16th dynasty
Unknown
Sewahenre Senebmiu
Senebmiu.png
Late 13th dynasty.
After 8340.[68]
Snaaib
Snaaib.jpg
Possibly a king of the Abydos Dynasty
Unknown
Mershepsesre Ini II
Reperti del Tempio di Iside di Benevento 25.jpg
Late 13th dynasty.
Unknown

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[75] that ruled from either from 8196 or c. 8291 until around 8351. The dynasty comprised many rulers with West Semitic names and is thus believed to have been Canaanite in origin. It is here given as per Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed.

Name Image Comments Dates
Yakbim Sekhaenre
Scarab Sekhaenre EA30511 Hall.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[75]
81968221
Ya'ammu Nubwoserre
Scarab Nubwoserre UC16597.jpg
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[75]
82218231
Qareh Khawoserre[75]
QarehScarabPetrie.png
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[75]
82318241
'Ammu Ahotepre[75]
AahotepreScarabPetrie.png
Chronological position uncertain, here given as per Ryholt[75]
82418256
Sheshi[76]
Canaanite - Scarab with Cartouche of King Sheshi - Walters 4217 - Bottom (2).jpg
Chronological position, duration of reign and extend of rule uncertain, here given as per Ryholt.[75] Alternatively, he could be an early Hyksos king, a Hyksos ruler of the second part of the 15th Dynasty or a vassal of the Hyksos.
82568296
Nehesy
Aasehra obelisk Petrie.png
Short reign, perhaps a son of Sheshi[75]
Around 8296
Khakherewre
Unknown
Nebefawre
Around 8297
Sehebre
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[68]
Around 8297 to 8302
Merdjefare
Stele Merdjefare by Khruner.png
Possibly identifiable with Wazad or Sheneh[68]
Around 8302
Sewadjkare III
Unknown
Nebdjefare
8307
Webenre
Unknown
Unknown
Djefare?
Unknown
Webenre
Around 8310
Nebsenre[75]
Jar Nebsenre by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a jar bearing his prenomen
At least 5 months of reign, some time between 8311 and 8352
Sekheperenre[75]
Scarab Sekheperenre by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a single scarab seal
2 months, some time between 8311 and 8352
Anati Djedkare[75]
Only known from the Turin canon
Unknown
Bebnum[75]
Only known from the Turin canon
Some time between 8311 and 8352
'Apepi[75]
Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals
c. 8350

The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nuya[68]
Scarab Nuya by Khruner.jpg
Attested by a scarab-seal
Unknown
Wazad[68]
Wazad.png
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Around 8300 ?
Sheneh[68]
100px
May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare
Unknown
Shenshek[68]
Scarab Shenshek by Khruner.png
Attested by a scarab-seal
Unknown
Khamure[68]
Khamure.png
Unknown
Yakareb[68]
Yakareb scarab.png
Unknown
Yaqub-Har[76]
YaqubHar scarab Petrie 75.png
May belong to the 14th dynasty, the 15th dynasty or be a vassal of the Hyksos. Possibly the Pharaoh that was mentioned in Genesis 41.
84th85th centuries

The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people who emerged from the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 8327 to 8466.

Name Image Comments Dates
Semqen
SemqenScarabPetrie.png
Chronological position uncertain.
8352 – Unknown
'Aper-'Anat
Aperanati scarab Petrie.png
Chronological position uncertain.
Unknown
Sakir-Har
Unknown
Khyan
Khyan.jpg
Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign
30–40 years
Apepi
ScarabBearingNameOfApophis MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
40 years or more
Khamudi
Cylinder Khondy Petrie.jpg
84468457

Abydos Dynasty

The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 8350 until 8400.[77][78][79] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemraneferkhau Wepwawetemsaf
Wepwawetemsaf.png
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[80]
Uncertain
Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny
Stele Pantjeny Petrie.jpg
May belong to the late 16th Dynasty[80]
Uncertain
Menkhaure Snaaib
Snaaib.jpg
May belong to the late 13th Dynasty.[81][82][83]
Uncertain
Woseribre Senebkay
Cartouche Senebkay by Khruner.jpg
Tomb discovered in 2014. Perhaps identifiable with a Woser[...]re of the Turin canon.
Around 8350

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty c. 8350 and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 8420. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only.

Name Image Comments Dates
Name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List and cannot be recovered
Unknown
Sekhemresementawy Djehuti
Block Djehuti by Khruner.jpg
3 years
Sekhemreseusertawy Sobekhotep VIII
Stele Sekhemre Seusertawy by Khruner.png
16 years
Sekhemresankhtawy Neferhotep III
Stele JE 59635 by Khruner.png
1 year
Seankhenre Mentuhotepi
Sphinx Seankhenre by Khruner.jpg
May be a king of the 17th Dynasty[82]
1 year
Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I
Dagger Sewadjenre Petrie.png
26 years
Neferkare(?) Nebiryraw II
Statuette Harpocrates Mariette.jpg
Around 8400
Semenre
Axehead Semenenre by Khruner.jpg
Around 8400
Seuserenre Bebiankh
Dagger Bebiankh by Khruner.jpg
12 years
Djedhotepre Dedumose I
Djedhotepre Dedumose stele.png
May be a king of the 13th Dynasty[82]
Around 8413-8419
Djedneferre Dedumose II
Djedneferre Dedumose.png
Around 8413-8419
Djedankhre Montemsaf
DjedankhraScarabPetrie.png
Around 8410
Merankhre Mentuhotep VI
Mentuhotep VI.jpg
Short reign, around 8415
Seneferibre Senusret IV
Senusret IV.png
Unknown
Sekhemre Shedwast
May be the same as Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
Unknown

The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[84] and Nebmaatre. Their chronological position is uncertain.[81][82]

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 8350 to 8450:

Name Image Comments Dates
Sekhemrewahkhaw Rahotep
Rahotep stele BM Budge.png
Around 8380
Sekhemre Wadjkhaw Sobekemsaf I
RedGraniteStatueOfSobkemsafI(Detail)-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg
At least 7 years
Sekhemre Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II
Statuette Sobekemsaf Petrie b.png
His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of Ramesses IX.
Unknown to around 8428
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef V
100px
Possibly around 8428-8430
Nubkheperre Intef VI
WoodenCoffinOfIntef-BritishMuseum-August21-08.jpg
Reigned more than 3 years
Around 8430 to the mid-8430s
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef VII
Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef, Louvre.jpg
Late 8430s
Senakhtenre Ahmose
Relief Senakhtenre by Khruner.jpg
Around 8443
Seqenenre Tao
Sequenre tao.JPG
Died in battle against the Hyksos.
84438447
Wadjkheperre Kamose
Sarcophage-Kamose.jpg
84478452

The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[68]

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom (84508924) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 85th to the 90th century, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 8450 to 8709:

Name Image Comments Dates
Nebpehtire Ahmose I, Ahmosis I
AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Brother and successor to Kamose, conquered north of Egypt from the Hyksos.
Around 84508475; Radiocarbon date range for the start of his reign is 84318457, the mean point of which is 8444[85]
Djeserkare Amenhotep I
58 I Amenhotep I.jpg
Son of Ahmose I.
84608481
Aakheperkare Thutmose I
ColossalSandstoneHeadOfThutmoseI-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg
Father unknown, though possibly Amenhotep I. His mother is known to be Senseneb. Expanded Egypt's territorial extent during his reign.
84818509
Aakheperenre Thutmose II
Stone block with relief at Karnak Temple Thutmosis II.jpg
Son of Thutmose I. Grandson of Amenhotep I through his mother, Mutnofret.
85098522
Maatkare Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut.jpg
The second known female ruler of Egypt. May have ruled jointly with her nephew Thutmose III during the early part of her reign. Famous for her expedition to Punt documented on her famous Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari. Built many temples and monuments. Ruled during the height of Egypt's power. Was the daughter of Thutmose I and the Great Wife of her brother Thutmose II.
85228543
Menkheperre Thutmose III
TuthmosisIII-2.JPG
Son of Thutmose II. May have ruled jointly with Hatshepsut, his aunt and step-mother, during the early part of her reign. Famous for his territorial expansion into the Levant and Nubia. Under his reign, the Ancient Egyptian Empire was at its greatest extent. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power. Before the end of his reign, he obliterated Hatshepsut's name and image from temples and monuments.
85438576
Aakheperrure Amenhotep II
Amenophis II-E 10896-IMG 0085-gradient.jpg
Son of Thutmose III. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
85768601
Menkheperure Thutmose IV
100px
Famous for his Dream Stele. Son of Amenhotep II. Ruled during the height of Egypt's Power.
86018611
Nebmaatre Amenhotep III The Magnificent King
Amenhotep iii british museum.jpg
Father of Akhenaten and grandfather of Tutankhamun. Ruled Egypt at the height of its power. Built many temples and monuments, including his enormous Mortuary Temple. Was the son of Thutmose IV.
86118649
Neferkheperure-waenre Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten
GD-EG-Caire-Musée061.JPG
Founder of the Amarna Period in which he changed the state religion from the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion to the Monotheistic Atenism, centered around the worship of the Aten, an image of the sun disc. He moved the capital to Akhetaten. Was the second son of Amenhotep III. He changed his name from Amenhotep (Amun is pleased) to Akhenaten (Effective for the Aten) to reflect his religion change.
86498665
Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare
Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin.jpg
Ruled jointly with Akhenaten during the later years of his reign. Unknown if Smenkhare ever ruled in his own right. Identity and even the gender of Smenkhare is uncertain. Some suggest he may have been the son of Akhenaten, possibly the same person as Tutankhamun; others speculate Smenkhare may have been Nefertiti or Meritaten. May have been succeeded by or identical with a female Pharaoh named Neferneferuaten.
86668667
Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/Neferneferuaten
UnfinishedStele-NefertitiPouringWineIntoAkhenatensCup.png
A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as Smenkhkare. Archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period. It is likely she was Nefertiti.
8667-8669
Nebkheperure Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun
CairoEgMuseumTaaMaskMostlyPhotographed.jpg
Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, most likely reinstated the polytheistic Ancient Egyptian religion. His name change from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun reflects the change in religion from the monolatristic Atenism to the classic religion, of which Amun is a major deity. He is thought to have taken the throne at around age eight or nine and to have died around age eighteen or nineteen, giving him the nickname "The Boy King." Tutankhamun was a weak ruler suffering from multiple health issues. However, he became famous for being buried in a decorative tomb intended for someone else called KV62.
86698677
Kheperkheperure Ay (II)
Opening of the Mouth - Tutankhamun and Aja-2.jpg
Was Grand Vizier to Tutankhamun and an important official during the reigns of Akhenaten and Smenkhkare. Possibly the brother of Tiye, Great Wife of Amenhotep III, and also possibly father of Nefertiti, Great Wife of Akhenaten. Believed to have been born into nobility, but not royalty. Succeeded Tutankhamun due to his lack of an heir.
86778681
Djeserkheperure-setpenre Horemheb
StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb01 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg
Born a Commoner. Was a General during the Amarna Period. Obliterated Images of the Amarna Pharaohs and destroyed and vandalized buildings and monuments associated with them. Succeeded Ay despite Nakhtmin being the intended heir.
86818709

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 8709 to 8815 and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great.

Name Image Comments Dates
Menpehtire Ramesses I[86]
StatueHeadOfParamessu-TitledFrontalView-RamessesI MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png
Of non-royal birth. Succeeded Horemheb due to his lack of an heir.
87098711
Menmaatre Seti I
SetiI-KneelingStatueOfferingToOsiris-CloseUp MetropolitanMuseum.png
Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of Akhenaten.
87118722
Usermaatre-setpenre Ramesses II the Great
RamsesIIEgypt.jpg
Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a stalemate with the Hittite Empire at the Battle of Kadesh in 8726, after which the famous Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty was signed in 8743. Had one of the longest Egyptian reigns.
87228788
Banenre Merenptah[87]
Merenptah Louxor-HeadAndShoulders-BackgroundKnockedOut.png
Thirteenth son of Ramesses II.
87888798
Menmire-setpenre Amenmesse
Amenmesse-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png
Most likely an usurper to the throne. Possibly ruled in opposition to Seti II. Suggested son of Merneptah.
87988801
Userkheperure Seti II[88]
Turin statue of Seti II.jpg
Son of Merneptah. May have had to overcome a contest by Amenmesse before he could solidify his claim to the throne.
87988804
Sekhaenre/Akhenre Merenptah Siptah[89]
Siptah.jpg
Possibly son of Seti II or Amenmesse, ascended to throne at a young age.
88048810
Satre-merenamun Tausret
Twosret.jpg
Probably the wife of Seti II. Also known as Twosret or Tawosret.
88108811

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 8811 to 8924:

Name Image Comments Dates
Userkhaure Setnakhte
Sethnakht closeup Lepsius.png
Not related to Seti II, Siptah, or Tausret. May have usurped the throne from Tausret. Did not recognize Siptah or Tausret as legitimate rulers. Possibly a member of a minor line of the Ramesside royal family. Also called Setnakt.
88118815
Usermaatre-meryamun Ramesses III
KhonsuTemple-Karnak-RamessesIII-2.jpg
Son of Setnakhte. Fought the Sea Peoples in 8826. Possibly assassinated (Harem conspiracy).
88158846
Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV
M-Ramses IV.jpg
Son of Ramesses III. During his reign, Egyptian power started to decline.
88468852
Usermaatre-sekheperenre Ramesses V
Ramses V mummy head.png
Son of Ramesses IV
88528856
Nebmaatre-meryamun Ramesses VI
RamassesVIFragmentarySarcophagusHead-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg
Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV. Uncle of Ramesses V.
88568864
Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII
Tomb KV1 Ramesses VII Lepsius.jpg
Son of Ramesses VI.
88648871
Usermaatre-akhenamun Ramesses VIII
SFEC-MEDINETHABU-Sethiherkhepeshef II.jpg
An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Son of Ramesses III. Brother of Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI. Uncle of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII. He is the sole Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty whose tomb has not been found.
88718872
Neferkare-setpenre Ramesses IX
Ramesses9.jpg
Probably grandson of Ramesses III through his father, Montuherkhopshef. First cousin of Ramesses V and Ramesses VII.
88728890
Khepermaatre-setpenptah Ramesses X[90]
RamsesXCrop.jpg
A poorly documented Pharaoh, his reign was between 3 and 10 years long. His origins are completely uncertain.
88908894
Menmaatre-setpenptah Ramesses XI[91]
Temple Khonsu Ramesses XI Lepsius.jpg
Possibly the son of Ramesses X. During the second half of his reign, High Priest of Amun Herihor ruled over the south from Thebes, limiting his power to Lower (Northern) Egypt. He was succeeded in the north by Smendes.
88948924

Third Intermediate Period

The Third Intermediate Period (89249337) marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-First Dynasty

The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 8932 to 9058.

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I)[92]
Canopic Smendes Met.jpg
Married to Tentamun, probable daughter of Ramesses XI.
89248950
Neferkare Heqawaset Amenemnisu
Bowcap Amenemnesut Psusennes by Khruner.jpg
Obscure four-year reign.
89508954
Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I)
Golden Mask of Psusennes I.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I, a High Priest of Amun. Ruled for 40 to 51 years. Famous for his intact tomb at Tanis. Known as "The Silver Pharaoh" due to the magnificent silver coffin he was buried in. One of the most powerful rulers of the Dynasty.
89549000
Usermaatre Amenemope
Son of Psusennes I.
90009009
Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder)
Seal Aakheperre Osorkon Petrie.jpg
Son of Shoshenq A, Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Also known as Osochor.
90099015
Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun
Unknown Origins. Built extensively for a third intermediate period Pharaoh. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty.
90159034
Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II)
Statue CG42192 legrain.jpg
Son of Pinedjem II, a High Priest of Amun.
90349058

Theban High Priests of Amun

Though not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Dynasties, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs.

Name Image Comments Dates
Herihor
KingHerihorAdoreOsiris.jpg
First High Priest of Amun to claim to be pharaoh. He ruled in the south in Thebes, while Ramesses XI ruled from the north in Pi-Ramesses. Some sources suggest he may have reigned after Piankh.
89218927
Piankh
Payankh stele Mariette.jpg
Some sources suggest he may have reigned before Herihor.
89278931
Pinedjem I
Statue Pinedjem CG42191 Legrain.png
Son of Piankh. Father of Psusennes I.
89318969
Masaharta
Mummy Masaherta Smith.JPG
Son of Pinedjem I.
89478956
Djedkhonsuefankh
Son of Pinedjem I.
89558956
Menkheperre
Molded Faience Amuletic Tube with Throne Name of the High Priest of Amen Menkheperre LACMA M.80.198.107.jpg
Son of Pinedjem I.
89569009
Nesbanebdjed II (Smendes II)
Nesbanebdjed II statuette Petrie.png
Son of Menkheperre.
90099011
Pinedjem II
Pinudjem-II.jpg
Son of Menkheperre, Father of Psusennes II.
90119025
Pasebakhaennuit III (Psusennes III)
Possibly the same person as Psusennes II. Either he or Pinedjem II is generally considered to be the last High Priest of Amun to consider himself as a pharaoh-like figure.
90259058

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-Second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 9058 to 9273:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setepenre Shoshenq I
Karnak Sheshonq I.jpg
Son of Nimlot A, a brother of Osorkon the Elder and a Great Chief of the Meshwesh (Libya). Possibly the biblical Shishaq.
90589079
Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I
Statue of Pharaoh Osorkon I-AO 9502-IMG 7653-gradient.jpg
Son of Shoshenq I.
90799114
Heqakheperre Shoshenq II
Sheshonq II mask2004.jpg
Obscure pharaoh, possibly a usurper.
91149116
Tutkheperre Shoshenq IIb
Obscure pharaoh, placement uncertain.
9110s
Hedjkheperre Harsiese
Sarcophage Harsiesis.JPG
An obscure rebel, at Thebes.
91219141
Takelot I
Takelot I a.jpg
Son of Osorkon I.
91169129
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon II
Egypte louvre 066.jpg
Son of Takelot I.
91299164
Usermaatre-setepenre Shoshenq III
Shoshenq III.jpg
91649203
Shoshenq IV
Stele Shoshenq V Y8 Spiegelberg.png
92039216
Usermaatre-setepenre Pami
100px
92169223
Aakheperre Shoshenq V
List of pharaohs, Louvre.jpg
92239261
Usermaatre Osorkon IV
Louvre egide tete lionne.JPG
92619281

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The Twenty-Third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 9164 to c. 9266:

Name Image Comments Dates
Hedjkheperre-setpenre Takelot II
Karnak Ptah 08.jpg
Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd.
91649188
Usermaatre-setepenamun Pedubast
Torso of Pedubast I by Michael Martin.jpg
A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II.
91759200
Usermaatre-setepenamun Iuput I
Co-regent with Pedubast.
91899190
Usermaatre Shoshenq VI
Successor to Pedubast.
92009206
Usermaatre-setepenamun Osorkon III
Osorkon III.jpg
Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king.
92069234
Usermaatre-setpenamun Takelot III
Karnak Takelot III.jpg
Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign.
92289236
Usermaatre-setpenamun Rudamun
Egypte louvre 054.jpg
Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III.
92369239

Rudamun was succeeded in Thebes by a local ruler:

Name Image Comments Dates
Menkheperre Ini
Louvre C100 stele Petrie.png
Reigned at Thebes only.
9239–Unknown

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two pharaohs ruling from 9269 to 9281.

Name Image Comments Dates
Shepsesre Tefnakhte
Tefnakht Athens stela (T. Efthimiadis) det.jpg
92699276
Wahkare Bakenrenef (Bocchoris)
Apis Bakenranef 6 Mariette.jpg
92769281

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubian/Kushite Period)

Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 9345.

Name Image Comments Dates
Usermaatre Piye
Stele Piye submission Mariette.jpg
King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in his 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years
92579287, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[93]
Djedkaure Shebitku
Stela Shebitqo Met.jpg
Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 7980s
92879296, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[93]
Neferkare Shabaka
Stela Shabaqo Met.jpg
Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 7980s
92969311, according to Frédéric Payraudeau[93]
Khuinefertemre Taharqa
SphinxOfTaharqa.jpg
Died in 9337
93119337
Bakare Tantamani
Nubian head.JPG
Lost control of Upper Egypt in 9345 when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year.
93379348

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (93459411), and, later, at Meroë (9411 – AD 500).

Late Period

The Late Period runs from around 9337 to 9669, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians.

Twenty-Sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 9337 to 9476.[94]

Name Image Comments Dates
Tefnakht II
MenibraScarabKS2670.png
Manetho's Stephinates. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. The father of Necho I.
93169323
Nekauba
Manetho's Nechepsos. His existence has been questioned.
93239329
Menkheperre Nekau I (Necho I)
Necho I Horus.png
Was killed by an invading Kushite force in 9337 under Tantamani. Father of Psamtik I.
93299337

The son and successor of Necho I, Psamtik I, managed to reunify Egypt and is generally regarded as the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.

Name Image Comments Dates
Wahibre Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
Psammetique Ier TPabasa.jpg
Reunified Egypt. Son of Necho I and father of Necho II.
93379391
Wehemibre Necho II (Necho II)
Necho-KnellingStatue BrooklynMuseum.png
Most likely the pharaoh mentioned in several books of the Bible and the death of Josiah. Son of Psamtik I and father of Psamtik II.
93919406
Neferibre Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
Sphinx Psammetique II 1104.jpg
Son of Necho II and father of Apries.
94069412
Haaibre Wahibre (Apries)
Apries.jpg
Fled Egypt after Amasis II (who was a general at the time) declared himself pharaoh following a civil war. Son of Psamtik II.
94129431
Khnemibre Ahmose II (Amasis II)
Farao Amasis.JPG
He was the last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, he was of common origins. Father of Psamtik III.
94319475
Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
Psamtik III.jpg
Son of Amasis II. Ruled for about six months before being defeated by the Persians in the Battle of Pelusium and subsequently executed for attempting to revolt.
94759476

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (First Persian Period)

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 9476 and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire until 9597. The Achaemenid Shahanshahs were acknowledged as Pharaohs in this era, forming the 27th Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Cambyses (Cambyses II)
Stela Cambyses Apis closeup.jpg
Defeated Psamtik III at the Battle of Pelusium at 9476.
94769480
Smerdis (Bardiya)
Son of Cyrus the Great.
94799480
Petubastis III[95]
Ignota prov., pannello decorativo del re sehibra, xxiii dinastia, 823-716 ac..JPG
A native Egyptian rebel in the Delta.
9479/94809481
Darius I the Great
Flickr - isawnyu - Hibis, Temple Decorations (III).jpg
Ascended throne by overthrowing Gaumata[96]
94809515
Psammetichus IV[95]
A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Exact date uncertain.
Possibly in the 9510s
Xerxes I the Great
Xerxes Image.png
Assassinated by Artabanus of Persia.
95159536
Artabanus the Hyrcanian
95369537
Artaxerxes I Longhand
Cartouche Artaxerxes I Lepsius.jpg
Died in 9577
95379577
Xerxes II
A claimant.
95779578
Sogdianus
A claimant.
95779578
Darius II
Darius ii.png
Died in 9597
95779597

Twenty-Eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 9597 to 9603, with one pharaoh:

Name Image Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus
Amyrtaios aramaic papyrus Sachau.png
Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians.
95979603

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 9603 to 9621:

Name Image Comments Dates
Baenre Nefaarud I
Louvre 032007 15.jpg
Also known as Nepherites. Defeated Amyrtaeus in open battle and had him executed.
96029608
Khenemmaatre Hakor (Achoris)
Statue Achoris Petrie 01.jpg
Son of Nefaarud I.
Around 9609–around 9610
Psammuthes
Statue of 29th Dynasty King Psamuthis LACMA M.71.73.57.jpg
Possibly dethroned Hakor for a year.
Around 9610
Hakor (restored)
Statue Achoris Petrie 01.jpg
Retook the throne from Psammuthes.
Around 9611–around 9622
Nefaarud II
Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Son of Hakor.
Around 9622

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 9621 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 9658:

Name Image Comments Dates
Kheperkare Nekhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
NectaneboI.jpg
Also known as Nekhtnebef. Deposed and likely killed Nefaarud II, starting the last dynasty of native Egyptians. Father of Teos.
96229640
Irimaatenre Djedher (Teos)
100px
Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 9636. Was overthrown by Nectanebo II with the aid of Agesilaus II of Sparta.
96409642
Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II)
Head of Nectanebo II-MBA Lyon H1701-IMG 0204.jpg
Last native ruler of ancient Egypt[97] to be recognized by Manetho.
96429659

Thirty-First Dynasty (Second Persian Period)

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 9658 to 9669 are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Image Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III Pharao.jpg
Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time.
9658-9663
Artaxerxes IV Arses
Artaxerxes IV Arses.jpg
Only reigned in Lower Egypt.
9663-9665
Khababash
Stela Nastasen Kambasuten Lepsius.jpg
Rebel pharaoh who led an invasion in Nubia.
9663-9666
Darius III
Darius III of Persia.jpg
Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 9666. The Persian Empire was conquered by Alexander the Great in 9669
9665-9669

Hellenistic period

Argead Dynasty

The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 9669 to 9692:

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great)
Alexander III of Macedon.jpg
Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt.
9669-9678
Philip III Arrhidaeus
Théodule Devéria (French) - (Close-up of a Sculpture (Profile of a Head), Karnak) - Google Art Project.jpg
Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander the Great.
9678-9684
Haaibre Alexander IV
Alexandros IV Aigos Budge.png
Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana.
9684-9692

Ptolemaic Dynasty

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies, ruled Egypt from 9696 until Egypt became a province of Rome in 9971 (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency). The most famous member of this dynasty was Cleopatra VII, in modern times known simply as Cleopatra, who was successively the consort of Julius Caesar and, after Caesar's death, of Mark Antony, having children with both of them.

Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans.[citation needed]

Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar) was the last king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt, and he reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 9954. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 9971, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 9971, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist.[citation needed]

Name Image Comments Dates
Setepenre-meryamun Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter Louvre Ma849.jpg
Abdicated in 9716; died in 9718
96969716
Berenice I
Berenice I.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy I
Unknown–9716
Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos
Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg
Reigned for 39 years[98]
97139755
Arsinoe I
Arsinoe I Dekadrachme.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy II
9717/9720–around 9727
Arsinoe II
Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy II
97249731
Ptolemy III Euergetes I
Ptolemy III Euergetes.jpg
Reigned for 24 years[99]
97559779
Berenice II
BerenikeIIOnACoinOfPtolemyIII.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy III. Was Murdered.
9757/97589779
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Octadrachm Ptolemy IV BM CMBMC33.jpg
Died in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or murder.
97799797
Arsinoe III
Oktadrachmon Arsinoe III.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy IV. Was Murdered.
97819797
Hugronaphor
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
97969802
Ankhmakis
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
98029816
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Tetradrachm Ptolemy V.jpg
Upper Egypt in revolt 97949815
97979821
Cleopatra I
Cleopatra I.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority
98089825
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BCE) - 2009.jpg
Died 9856
98219837
Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II.jpg
Wife of Ptolemy VI
98269837
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg
Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 9831; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 9832 to 9837. Died 9885
98309838
Ptolemy VI Philometor
Ring with engraved portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor (3rd–2nd century BCE) - 2009.jpg
Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 98379838; Ptolemy VI restored 9838
98389856
Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II.jpg
Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 9870 and became sole ruler of Egypt.
98389874
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator
Coin of Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator.jpg
Proclaimed co-ruler by his father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II
98569857
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg
Restored
98569870
Cleopatra III
Cleopatra III.jpg
Second wife of Ptolemy VIII. Was murdered by her own son Ptolemy X.
98599870
Ptolemy Memphitis
Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII
9870
Harsiesi
Revolutionary pharaoh in the South
98709871
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II
Ptolemy VIII - silver didrachma - líc.jpg
Restored
98749885
Cleopatra III
Cleopatra III.jpg
Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X.
98749894
Cleopatra II
Cleopatra II.jpg
Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 9885.
98779885
Ptolemy IX Soter II
Edfu29.JPG
Died 9921
98859891
Cleopatra IV
Berenice und Selene.jpg
Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. Later murdered.
98859886
Ptolemy X Alexander I
Ptolemy X Alexander I Louvre Ma970.jpg
Died 9913
98919892
Berenice III
Berenice III.jpg
Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later
99209921
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III
9921
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes)
Ptolemy XII Auletes Louvre Ma3449.jpg
Son of Ptolemy IX; died 9950
99219943
Cleopatra V Tryphaena
Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV
99229933
Cleopatra VI
Daughter of Ptolemy XII
99439944
Berenice IV
Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 9944.
99439946
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos
Ptolemy XII Auletes Louvre Ma3449.jpg
Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death
99469950
Cleopatra VII
Kleopatra-VII.-Altes-Museum-Berlin1.jpg
Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of Cleopatra with no ordinal number usually refers to Cleopatra VII. Committed suicide.
99509971
Ptolemy XIII
Portrait of Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator.jpg
Brother of Cleopatra VII
99509954
Arsinoe IV
Jacopo Tintoretto - The Liberation of Arsinoe - WGA22667.jpg
In opposition to Cleopatra VII
99539954
Ptolemy XIV
Ptolemy XIV.jpg
Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII
99549957
Ptolemy XV
Denderah3 Cleopatra Cesarion.jpg
Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Last known ruler of ancient Egypt when Rome took over.
99579971

Rome

File:Luxor.Aswan & Qena 10.JPG
Egyptian relief depicting the Roman Emperor Trajan (right, reigned 98–117 AD) in full pharaonic style.

Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman dictator Julius Caesar and Roman general Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus Caesar) that Egypt became a province of the Roman Republic in 9971. Subsequent Roman emperors were accorded the title of pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt.

The last Roman emperor to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia (reigned 311–313 AD).[2][100]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Clayton 1995, p. 217. "Although paying lip-service to the old ideas and religion, in varying degrees, pharaonic Egypt had in effect died with the last native pharaoh, Nectanebo II in 9658"
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Verlag Philipp von Zabern. pp. 266–267. ISBN 978-3422008328.
  3. "Digital Egypt for Universities". www.ucl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-12.
  4. Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 1-136-60247-X, p. 50.
  5. Toby A. H. Wilkinson: Royal Annals Of Ancient Egypt. Routledge, London 2012, ISBN 1-136-60247-X, p. 61.
  6. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 259.
  7. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 139.
  8. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 199.
  9. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 138.
  10. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 181.
  11. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 311.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen. Albatros, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96053-3, p. 137.
  13. Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125.
  14. zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Band 37
  15. Ludwig David Morenz: Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). Fribourg 2004, ISBN 3-7278-1486-1, p. 91.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Zur Aktualität von Jan Assmann: Einleitung in sein Werk
  17. [1]
  18. [2]
  19. P. Tallet, D. Laisnay: Iry-Hor et Narmer au Sud-Sinaï (Ouadi 'Ameyra), un complément à la chronologie des expéditios minière égyptiene. In: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale (BIFAO) 112. Ausgabe 2012, S. 381–395.
  20. Günter Dreyer: Horus Krokodil, ein Gegenkönig der Dynastie 0. In: Renee Friedman and Barbara Adams (Hrsg.): The Followers of Horus, Studies dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman, 1949–1990 (= Egyptian Studies Association Publication, vol. 2). Oxbow Publications, Bloomington (IN) 1992, ISBN 0-946897-44-1, p. 259–263.
  21. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol. 49. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2591-6, p. 36–37.
  22. Toby Wilkinson: Early Dynastic Egypt: Strategy, Society and Security. Routeledge, London 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1, p. 38, 56 & 57.
  23. Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (= Ägyptologische Abhandlungen (ÄA), Vol. 45). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-447-02677-4, p. 124.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (Agyptologische Abhandlungen), ISBN 3-447-02677-4, O. Harrassowitz (1987), p. 124
  25. William Matthew Flinders Petrie: The Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties. Cambridge University Press, New York 2013 (reprint of 1901), ISBN 1-108-06612-7, p. 49.
  26. Nicolas-Christophe Grimal: A History of Ancient Egypt. Blackwell, Oxford UK/ Cambridge USA 1992, ISBN 978-0-631-19396-8, p. 53.
  27. Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83–84
  28. Dietrich Wildung: Die Rolle ägyptischer Könige im Bewußtsein ihrer Nachwelt. Teil I. Posthume Quellen über die Könige der ersten vier Dynastien. In: Münchener Ägyptologische Studien, vol. 17. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich/Berlin 1969, p. 31–33.
  29. Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
  30. Wilkinson (1999) pp. 87–88
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Further reading

  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380–1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1995). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. The Chronicles Series (Reprinted ed.). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05074-3.
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Garry. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav,The Pyramids – Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8
  • Egypt, History & Civilisation By Dr. R Ventura. Published by Osiris, PO Box 107 Cairo.

External links