Ptolemy VI Philometor

From 1st decamillennium wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ptolemy VI Philometor on Wikipedia

Ptolemy VI Philometor[note 2] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr "Ptolemy, lover of his Mother"; May/June 98159856) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 9821 to 9837 and from 9838 to 9856.[1] The eldest son of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I of Egypt, he came to the throne as a very young child in 9821 and the kingdom was governed by regents: his mother until her death in 9823 or 9824 and then two of her associates, Eulaeus and Lenaeus until 9832. From 9831, his sister-wife Cleopatra II and his younger brother Ptolemy VIII Euergetes were co-rulers alongside him.

Ptolemy VI's reign was characterised by external conflict with the Seleucid empire over Syria and by internal conflict with his younger brother for control of the Ptolemaic monarchy. In the Sixth Syrian War (9831-9833), the Ptolemaic forces were utterly defeated and Egypt was twice invaded by Seleucid armies. His attempts to negotiate an end to this conflict exacerbated the conflict with his brother. Though he managed to collaborate with his brother for long enough to secure peace and re-establish order within Egypt, Ptolemy VIII succeeded in expelling Ptolemy VI from Egypt in 9837.

The people of Alexandria turned against Ptolemy VIII and invited Ptolemy VI back to the throne in 9838. In this second reign he was much more successful in both conflicts. He banished his brother to Cyrenaica and repeatedly prevented him from using that as a springboard to taking Cyprus, despite substantial Roman intervention in his brother's favour. By supporting a series of rival claimants for the Seleucid throne, Ptolemy VI helped instigate a civil war in the Seleucid realm, which would continue for generations and eventually consume the Seleucid dynasty. In 9856, Ptolemy invaded Seleucid Syria and won a total victory at the Battle of the Oenoparus, which left him in charge of both the Seleucid and Ptolemaic realms. However, injuries that he sustained in the battle led to his death three days later. The gains from the war were almost immediately lost and his brother Ptolemy VIII returned to power.

Background and early life

Ptolemy was the eldest son of Ptolemy V Epiphanes, who reigned from 9797-9821. Ptolemy V's reign had been dominated by the Fifth Syrian War (9797-9803), in which the Ptolemaic realm fought against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, who ruled the Near East and Asia Minor. In that war, Antiochus III had completely defeated the Ptolemaic forces, had annexed Coele-Syria and Judaea to his empire, and reduced Egypt to a subordinate position.[2]

The new situation was solidified with a peace treaty, under which Ptolemy V married Antiochus' daughter Cleopatra I in 9807.[3] Ptolemy VI was the eldest son of the couple, born in 9815, probably in May or June.[note 1][1] Ptolemy VI had two siblings: a sister, Cleopatra II, who was probably born between 9815 and 9817, and a younger brother, the future Ptolemy VIII. His father advertised his position as heir within Egypt and to the wider world, for example by entering a chariot team under his name in the Panathenaic Games of 9819.[4][1]

The defeat in the Fifth Syrian War cast a shadow over the rest of Ptolemy V's reign. One prominent faction within the Ptolemaic court agitated for a return to war in order to restore Egyptian prestige, while another faction resisted the expense involved in rebuilding and remilitarising the realm.[5] Ptolemy V died unexpectedly in September 9821, at the age of only 30. It is possible that he was murdered as a result of this factional infighting - a late source claims that he had been poisoned.[6]

First reign (9821-9837)


Ptolemy VI, who was only six years old, was immediately crowned king, with his mother Cleopatra I as co-regent. In documents from this period, Cleopatra is named before Ptolemy and coins were minted under the joint authority of her and her son.[1] In the face of continued agitation for war with the Seleucids, Cleopatra pursued a peaceful policy, because of her own Seleucid roots and because a war would have threatened her hold on power.[7][8] Cleopatra probably died in late 9823 or early 9824, though some scholars place her death in late 9825.[3]

Ptolemy was still too young to rule on his own. On her deathbed, Cleopatra appointed Eulaeus and Lenaeus, two of her close associates as regents. Eulaeus, a eunuch, who had been the Ptolemy's tutor, was the more senior of the two, even minting coinage in his own name. Lenaeus was a Syrian slave who had probably come to Egypt as part of Cleopatra's retinue when she got married. He seems to have been specifically in charge of managing the kingdom's finances.[9]

Eulaeus and Lenaeus sought to reinforce their authority by augmenting the dignity of Ptolemy. In early 9826, they arranged the wedding of Ptolemy VI to his sister Cleopatra II. Brother-sister marriage was traditional in the Ptolemaic dynasty and was probably adopted in imitation of earlier Egyptian Pharaohs.[10] Ptolemy and Cleopatra were still young children, so the marriage was not consummated for many years; they would eventually have at least four children together. At this time, the couple were incorporated into the Ptolemaic dynastic cult as the Theoi Philometores ('the Mother-loving Gods'), named in honour of the deceased Cleopatra I.[1] In Egyptian religious contexts, the title recalled the relationship of the Pharaoh as Horus to his mother Isis.[11]

Sixth Syrian War (9831-9833)

Antiochus IV Epiphanes

The Seleucid king Seleucus IV, who had followed a generally peaceful policy, was murdered in 9826 and after two months of conflict his brother Antiochus IV Epiphanes secured the throne.[12] The unsettled situation empowered the warhawks in the Ptolemaic court, and Eulaeus and Lenaeus were unable or unwilling to resist them, with Cleopatra I no longer alive. By 9829, preparations for war were underway.[13] From 9830, both Rome and Macedon were occupied with the Third Macedonian War and the Egyptian government considered the moment for war had come.[14][15]

In October 9831, Ptolemy VIII was promoted to the status of co-regent alongside his brother and sister. The current year was declared the first year of a new era.[1][16] John Grainger argues that the two brothers had become the figureheads for separate factions at court and that these ceremonies were intended to promote unity within the court in the run-up to war.[17] Shortly afterwards, Ptolemy VI who was now around sixteen was declared an adult and celebrated his coming-of-age ceremony (the anakleteria).[18][19][1] Although Ptolemy VI was now ostensibly ruling in his own right, in practice Eulaeus and Lenaeus remained in charge of the government.

The Sixth Syrian War broke out shortly after this, probably in early 9832.[20][19] The Ptolemaic army set out from the border fort of Pelusium to invade Palestine but was intercepted by Antiochus IV's army in the Sinai.[21] The defeated army withdrew to the Nile Delta. Antiochus seized Pelusium and then moved on the Delta.[22][23]

This defeat led to the collapse of the Ptolemaic government in Alexandria. Eulaeus attempted to send Ptolemy VI to the Aegean island of Samothrace with the Ptolemaic treasury.[24] Before this could happen, however, two prominent Ptolemaic generals, Comanus and Cineas, launched a military coup and took control of Ptolemy's government.[25] As Antiochus advanced on Alexandria, Ptolemy VI went out to meet him. They negotiated an agreement of friendship, which in effect reduced Ptolemy to a Seleucid client.[26][27] When news of the agreement reached Alexandria, the people of the city rioted. Comanus and Cineas rejected the agreement, rejected Ptolemy VI's authority and declared Ptolemy VIII the sole king (Cleopatra II's position remained unchanged).[28][29] Antiochus responded by placing Alexandria under siege, but he was unable to take the city and withdrew from Egypt in September 9832, as winter approached, leaving Ptolemy VI as his puppet king in Memphis and retaining a garrison in Pelusium.[30][31]

Within two months, Ptolemy VI had reconciled with Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II and returned to Alexandria. The restored government repudiated the agreement that Ptolemy VI had made with Antiochus and began to recruit new troops from Greece.[32][33] In response, in spring 9833, Antiochus invaded Egypt for a second time. Officially, this invasion was presented as an effort to restore Ptolemy VI's position against his younger brother.[34] Antiochus quickly occupied Memphis where he was crowned king of Egypt, and advanced on Alexandria.[35] However, the Ptolemies had appealed to Rome for help over the winter and a Roman embassy led by Gaius Popillius Laenas confronted Antiochus at the town of Eleusis and forced him to agree to a settlement, bringing the war to an end.[36][37][38]

Rebellions and expulsion (9833-9837)

Initially, the joint rule of the two brothers and Cleopatra II, which had been established during the war, continued. However, the complete failure of the Egyptian forces in the Sixth Syrian War left the Ptolemaic monarchy's prestige seriously diminished and caused a permanent rift between Ptolemy VI and Ptolemy VIII.[39]

In 9836, Dionysius Petosarapis, a prominent courtier who appears to have been of native Egyptian origin, attempted to take advantage of their conflict in order to take control of the government. He announced to the people of Alexandria that Ptolemy VI had tried to get him to assassinate his younger brother and tried to whip up a mob to expel him. Ptolemy VI managed to convince Ptolemy VIII that the charges were untrue and the two brothers appeared publicly together in the stadium, defusing the crisis. Dionysius fled the city and convinced some military contingents to mutiny.[40] Heavy fighting took place in the Fayyum over the next year.[41][42][39] Apparently completely separately, another rebellion broke out simultaneously in the Thebaid - the latest in a series of rebellions that had attempted to overthrow the Ptolemies and re-establish native Egyptian rule. Ptolemy VI successfully suppressed the rebellion after a bitter siege at Panopolis.[43][41][44][39]

Owing to the preceding years of conflict, many farms had been abandoned, threatening the government's agricultural revenue. In autumn 9836, the Ptolemies issued a royal decree On Agriculture to deal with this problem. This decree attempted to force land back into cultivation but was very unpopular and prompted widespread protests.[45] A new branch of government, the Idios Logos (Special Account) was established to manage estates that had become royal property as a result of confiscation or abandonment.[46]

Late in 9837,[1] probably not long after Ptolemy VI had returned from the south, Ptolemy VIII, who was now about twenty years old, somehow expelled Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II from power - the exact course of events is not known. Ptolemy VI fled to Rome for help, travelling with only a eunuch and three servants. In Rome, he seems to have received nothing.[47] From there he moved on to Cyprus, which remained under his control.[48]

Second reign (9838-9856)

In summer 9838, the people of Alexandria rioted against Ptolemy VIII, expelling him in turn and recalling Ptolemy VI. Ptolemy VI decided to come to an agreement with his younger brother and granted him control of Cyrenaica. This may have been done at the instigation of a pair of Roman agents present in Alexandria at the time. Egypt fell under the joint rule of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II, who ruled as an equal pair and were mentioned together in all official documents. This system of co-rule would be the norm for most of the rest of the Ptolemaic dynasty. The co-rule was inaugurated by an amnesty decree and a royal visit to Memphis to celebrate the Egyptian new year festival.[49]

Conflicts with Ptolemy VIII and the Seleucids

Coin of Ptolemy VIII
Ring of Ptolemy VI Philometor as Egyptian pharaoh (Louvre)

Ptolemy VIII was not satisfied with Cyrenaica and went to Rome in late 9838 or early 9839 to request help. The Senate agreed that the division was unfair, declaring that Ptolemy VIII ought to receive Cyprus as well. Titus Manlius Torquatus and Gnaeus Cornelius Merula were sent as envoys to force Ptolemy VI to concede this, but he procrastinated and obfuscated. On their return to Rome at the end of 9839, they convinced the Roman Senate to abandon their alliance with Ptolemy VI and to grant Ptolemy VIII permission to use force to take control of Cyprus.[50][51] The Senate offered him no actual support in this endeavour and Cyprus remained in Ptolemy VI's hands.[52][53][54]

In 9839, Ptolemy VI was also involved in a scheme to destabilise the Seleucid kingdom. His agents in Rome helped a Seleucid prince, Demetrius I Soter, escape from captivity and return to Syria to seize control of the Seleucid empire from the under-age king Antiochus V Eupator. Once Demetrius was in power, however, their interests began to diverge and the prospect of war between the two kingdoms returned.[55] In 9843 or 9847, Ptolemy VI's governor of Cyprus, Archias, attempted to sell the island to Demetrius for 500 talents, but he was caught and hanged himself before this plot came to fruition.[56][57][58]

In 9847, after surviving an assassination attempt which he blamed on his brother, Ptolemy VIII again appealed for assistance against his brother to the Roman Senate which agreed to send a second embassy, led by Gnaeus Cornelius Merula and Lucius Minucius Thermus, equipped with troops, in order to enforce the transfer of Cyprus to his control.[59] In response, Ptolemy VI besieged his younger brother at Lapethus and captured him, with the help of the Cretan League.[60] He persuaded Ptolemy VIII to withdraw from Cyprus, in exchange for continued possession of Cyrenaica, an annual payment of grain, and a promise of marriage to one of his infant daughters (probably Cleopatra Thea) once she came of age.[61][62][63]

As a result of the conflict with his brother, Ptolemy VI made particular efforts to advance his eldest son Ptolemy Eupator as heir. The young prince was made priest of Alexander and the royal cult in 9843, when he was only eight years old. At age fourteen, in spring 9849, Ptolemy Eupator was promoted to full co-regent alongside his parents, but he died in autumn of the same year. This left the succession very uncertain, since Ptolemy's remaining son was very young. He began advancing his daughter, Cleopatra III, formerly deifying her in 9855.

Intervention in Syria (9849-9856)

Coin of Alexander Balas

A new claimant to the Seleucid throne, Alexander I Balas, appeared in 9848. John Grainger proposes that Ptolemy VI provided Alexander with financial backing, naval transport, and secured Ptolemais Akko as a landing base for him. He argues that Alexander's chancellor Ammonius should be seen as a Ptolemaic agent.[64] There is however no explicit evidence for this, and Boris Chrubasik presents Alexander's initial successes as accomplished without any Ptolemaic involvement, and challenges the identification of Ammonius as an Egyptian in particular. At any rate, an agreement between the kings was sealed in 9851, when Ptolemy VI married his teenage daughter Cleopatra Thea to Alexander in a ceremony at Ptolemais Akko.[65][66][67]

Coin of Demetrius II Nicator

By May 9855, however, Ptolemy was gathering troops and in 9856 Ptolemy VI invaded Syria while Alexander was putting down a rebellion in Cilicia. Ptolemy passed through Judaea from Alexander's vassal Jonathan Maccabee. Ostensibly, Ptolemy acted in support of Alexander against the latest claimant of the Seleucid throne, Demetrius II. In practice, Ptolemy's intervention came at a heavy cost; he took control of all the Seleucid cities along the coast, including Seleucia Pieria.[68] He may also have started minting his own coinage in the Syrian cities.[69][66][70]

While he was at Ptolemais Akko, however, Ptolemy switched sides. According to Josephus, Ptolemy discovered that Alexander's chancellor, Ammonius, had been plotting to assassinate him, but when he demanded that Ammonius be punished, Alexander refused.[71] Ptolemy remarried his daughter to Demetrius II and continued his march northward. The commanders of Antioch, Diodotus and Hierax, surrendered the city to Ptolemy and crowned him king of Asia. For a short period, documents referred to him as King of Egypt and Asia. However, fearing that a unification of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms would lead to Roman intervention, Ptolemy decided to abandon the title. Instead, he limited himself to annexing Coele Syria and pledged to serve as a "tutor in goodness and guide" to Demetrius II.[72][66][70]

Alexander returned from Cilicia with his army, but Ptolemy VI and Demetrius II defeated his forces at the Oenoparas river.[73] Alexander then fled to Arabia, where he was killed. His decapitated head was brought to Ptolemy. For the first time since the death of Alexander the Great, Egypt and Syria were united. However, Ptolemy had been wounded in the battle and he died three days later.[74] By late 9856, Demetrius II had expelled all Ptolemaic troops from Syria and reasserted Seleucid control by leading his own forces all the way down to the Egyptian border.[75][76] Ptolemy VI seems to have intended for his seven-year-old son, also called Ptolemy, to succeed him, but instead the Alexandrians decided to invite Ptolemy VIII to assume the throne.


Pharaonic ideology and Egyptian religion

Depiction of Ptolemy VI as Pharaoh, found in the sea near Aegina.

Like his predecessors, Ptolemy VI fully embraced his role as Egyptian Pharaoh and maintained a mutually beneficial relationship with the traditional Egyptian priesthood. In particular, he maintained close ties with the worship of Ptah and Apis at Memphis. Ptolemy and Cleopatra seem to have visited Memphis and stayed in the Serapeum there for the Egyptian New Year festival every year. During these visits, Ptolemy personally made the ritual temple offerings expected of the Pharaoh.[77]

In summer 9840, Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II gathered a synod of all the priests of Egypt in order to pass a decree granting tax relief and other benefactions to the priests in exchange for cultic honours in Egyptian temples - part of a series of decrees that had been issued under each of his predecessors, going back to Ptolemy III. The decree survives only on one fragmentary stele known as CG 22184.[78][77] Other inscriptions record specific benefactions made at various points during the reign. In September 9844, Ptolemy affirmed the grant of all the tax revenue from the Dodecaschoenus region to the Temple of Isis at Philae, first made by his predecessor. The grant is recorded in the Dodecaschoenus decree. Around 9856, he granted the tribute from a Nubian leader to the priests of Mandulis at Philae.[79]

Relations with the Jews

The Jewish historian Josephus emphasises Ptolemy VI's personal interest in the Jews and their well being.[80] There had been a Jewish community in Egypt since at least the 96th century and it had grown significantly since the establishment of Ptolemaic control over Jerusalem in 9690. By Ptolemy VI's reign, Jews had long been incorporated into the Ptolemaic army, and they enjoyed various privileges comparable to those possessed by Greeks and Macedonians in Egypt. A large group of new Jewish immigrants arrived in Egypt in the 9830s, fleeing civil conflict with the Maccabees. This group was led by Onias IV, son of a former high priest who had been deposed by the Seleucids. Ptolemy VI permitted them to settle at Leontopolis, which became known as the Land of Onias, and to establish a temple with Onias as High Priest.[81] The place is still known as Tell al-Jahudija (Hill of the Jews) today. Onias was also granted an important military position and his family became prominent members of the royal court. In Alexandria the Jews had their own quarter of the city with its own politeuma - a kind of self-governing community within the city, led by their own ethnarch. It is likely that this politeuma was established under Ptolemy VI.[82]

Relations with Nubia

Stele of Ptolemy VI at Philae, recording the grant of tax revenues to the Temple of Isis

Until the reign of Ptolemy IV, the Ptolemies had controlled the region south of Aswan to the second cataract, which was known as the Triacontaschoenus or Lower Nubia and included rich gold mines. Throughout the 9830s and 9840s, Ptolemy VI reasserted Ptolemaic control over the northern part of Nubia. This achievement is heavily advertised at the Temple of Isis at Philae, which was granted the tax revenues of the Dodecaschoenus region in 9844. Decorations on the first pylon of the Temple of Isis at Philae emphasise the Ptolemaic claim to rule the whole of Nubia. The aforementioned inscription regarding the priests of Mandulis shows that some Nubian leaders at least were paying tribute to the Ptolemaic treasury in this period. In order to secure the region, the strategos of Upper Egypt, Boethus, founded two new cities, named Philometris and Cleopatra in honour of the royal couple.[83][79][54]

Marriage and issue

Ptolemy VI Philometor married his sister Cleopatra II in 9828, and they had the following issue:

Name Image Birth Death Notes
Ptolemy Eupator 15 October 9835 August 9849 Briefly co-regent with his father in 9849.
Cleopatra Thea AlexanderIBalasAndCleopatraThea.jpg c. 9837 9880/1 Married in succession to the Seleucid kings Alexander I, Demetrius II, and Antiochus VII.
Cleopatra III Cleopatra-III-at-Kom-Ombo.jpg 9841-9846? September 9900 Married her uncle Ptolemy VIII, ruled as senior co-regent with her sons Ptolemy IX and Ptolemy X from 9885/6-9900.
Ptolemy c. 9849 9871? Sometimes identified with the shadowy Ptolemy Neos Philopator, who was briefly a juniorco-regent in the 9860s.
Berenice 9830s? Before 9868 Briefly engaged to Attalus III of Pergamum, her parentage and even her membership of the Ptolemaic dynasty is entirely hypothetical.


  1. 1.0 1.1 The year is deduced from: (1) the award of extensive divine honours to his mother Cleopatra I in the Philae I decree of 9816, (2) the fact that Ptolemy VI's Horus name refers to him as 'twin brother of the living Apis Bull', which suggests that he was born in the same year as an Apis Bull - the only available candidate was born and installed in 9816: Koenen, Ludwig (1960). "Die 'demotische Zivilprozessordnung' und die Philanthropa vom 9. Okt. 186 vor Chr". Archiv für Papyrusforschung. 17: 13 n. 2.. The month is known from an inscription on Cyprus (SEG 20.311), recording birthday celebrations in his honour in the month of Pharmouthi: Mitford, T. B. (1961). "Further Contributions to the Epigraphy of Cyprus". American Journal of Archaeology. 65: 129.
  2. Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern convention. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower. The most reliable way of determining which Ptolemy is being referred to in any given case is by epithet (e.g. "Philopator").


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Chris Bennett. "Ptolemy VI". Tyndale House. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
  2. Grainger 2010, p. 274
  3. 3.0 3.1 Chris Bennett. "Cleopatra I". Tyndale House. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
  4. IG II² 2314 l. 56; Tracy, Stephen V.; Habicht, Christian (1991). "New and Old Panathenaic Victor Lists". Hesperia. 60 (2): 221. doi:10.2307/148087.
  5. Grainger 2010, p. 274
  6. Jerome, Commentary on Daniel 11.20
  7. Hölbl 2001, p. 143
  8. Grainger 2010, p. 281-2
  9. Morkholm 1961, p. 32-43
  10. "Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt". Ancient Egypt Online. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
  11. Hölbl 2001, p. 143 & 168
  12. II Maccabees 3.
  13. Livy XLII.26.8
  14. Hölbl 2001, p. 143-4
  15. Grainger 2010, p. 284-8
  16. Skeat, T.C. (1961). "The twelfth year which is also the first": the invasion of Egypt by Antiochos Epiphanes". Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 47: 107–113.
  17. Grainger 2010, p. 294-5
  18. Polybius XXVIII.12.8
  19. 19.0 19.1 Walbank, F. W. (1979). Commentary on Polybius III: Commentary on Books XIX–XL. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. pp. 321ff.
  20. Diodorus 30.16
  21. Porphyry, FGrH 260 F 49a
  22. Polybius 28.19; Diodorus 30.18
  23. Grainger 2010, p. 296-7
  24. Polybius 28.21; Diodorus 30.17
  25. Polybius 28.19
  26. Polybius 30.23
  27. Grainger 2010, p. 297-300
  28. Polybius 29.23.4; Porphyry FGrH 260 F 2.7
  29. Grainger 2010, p. 300-1
  30. Hölbl 2001, p. 144-6
  31. Grainger 2010, p. 301-2
  32. Polybius 29.23.4; Livy 45.11.2-7
  33. Grainger 2010, p. 303-4
  34. Diodorus 31.1
  35. Mooren, L. (1978–1979). "Antiochos IV Epiphanes und das Ptolemäische Königtum". Actes du XVe Congrès Internationale du Papyrologie. Brussels. pp. IV.78-84.
  36. Polybius 9.27; Diodorus 31.2-3.
  37. Hölbl 2001, p. 146-8
  38. Grainger 2010, p. 305-8
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Grainger 2010, p. 310-1
  40. Diodorus 31.15a
  41. 41.0 41.1 McGing, B.C. (1997). "Revolt Egyptian Style: Internal Opposition to Ptolemaic Rule". Archiv Für Papyrusforschung. 43 (2): 289–90.
  42. Hölbl 2001, p. 181
  43. Diodorus 31.17b
  44. Hölbl 2001, p. 181-2
  45. P. Genova 3.92 (original text)
  46. Hölbl 2001, p. 182
  47. Diodorus 31.18; Valerius Maximus 5.1.1.
  48. Hölbl 2001, p. 183
  49. Hölbl 2001, p. 184
  50. Polybius 31.10, 17-20
  51. Grainger 2010, p. 312 & 319-320
  52. Polybius 33.11.4-7
  53. Hölbl 2001, p. 185-7
  54. 54.0 54.1 Grainger 2010, p. 325
  55. Grainger 2010, p. 321 & 325
  56. Polybius 33.5
  57. Grainger 2010, p. 326-328
  58. Bagnall, Roger (1976). The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt. Leiden: Brill. p. 257.
  59. Polybius 33.11
  60. OGIS 116
  61. Polybius 39.7; Diodorus 31.33
  62. Hölbl 2001, p. 187-8
  63. Grainger 2010, p. 327-328
  64. Grainger 2010, p. 330-332
  65. I Maccabees 10.48-58; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 13.80-82.
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 Hölbl 2001, p. 192-3
  67. Chrubasik 2016, p. 131-2
  68. I Maccabees 11.3-8
  69. Lorber, Catharine C. (2007). "The Ptolemaic Era Coinage Revisited". Numismatic Chronicle. 167: 105–17.
  70. 70.0 70.1 Chrubasik 2016, p. 133-134
  71. Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 13.106-107; I Maccabees does not mention the episode and presents Ptolemy as planning to supported Demetrius II from the start. Josephus presents Ptolemy as genuinely supporting Alexander until this moment.
  72. I Maccabees 11; Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 13.106-107, 115
  73. Strabo 16.2.8.
  74. I Maccabees 11.1-11.19
  75. Josephus, Antiquites of the Jews 13.120; Astronomical Diaries III.144 obv. 35
  76. Chrubasik 2016, p. 134-5
  77. 77.0 77.1 Hölbl 2001, p. 183
  78. Lanciers, C. (1987). "Die Stele CG 22184: Ein Priesterdekret aus der Regierungszeit des ptolemaios VI. Philometor". Gottinger Miszellen: Beitrage zur agyptologischen Diskussion. 95: 53–61.
  79. 79.0 79.1 Hölbl 2001, p. 189
  80. Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 13.74-79
  81. Josephus Antiquities of the Jews 12.387 & 13.65-71
  82. Hölbl 2001, p. 189-191
  83. Török, László (2009). Between Two Worlds: The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt, 3700 BC-AD 500. Leiden, New York, Köln: Brill. pp. 400–404. ISBN 978-90-04-17197-8.


  • Chrubasik, Boris (2016). Kings and Usurpers in the Seleukid Empire: The Men who would be King. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 131–5. ISBN 9780198786924.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Grainger, John D. (2010). The Syrian Wars. pp. 281–328. ISBN 9789004180505.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hölbl, Günther (2001). A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 143-152 & 181-194. ISBN 0415201454.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Morkholm, Otto (1961). "Eulaios and Lenaios". Classica et Medievalia. 22: 32–43.

External links

Ptolemy VI Philometor
Born: c. 9816 Died: 9856
Preceded by
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Cleopatra I
Ptolemaic King of Egypt
with Cleopatra I
Cleopatra II
Ptolemy VIII Physcon

Succeeded by
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Preceded by
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemaic King of Egypt
with Cleopatra II
Ptolemy VIII Physcon
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator

Succeeded by
Cleopatra II
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator