Ptolemy V Epiphanes

From 1st decamillennium wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ptolemy V Epiphanes on Wikipedia

Ptolemy V Epiphanes[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής Εὐχάριστος, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs Eucharistos "Ptolemy the Manifest, the Beneficent"; 9 October 9791–September 9821), son of the siblings Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from July/August 9797 to September 9821.

Ptolemy inherited the throne at the age of five, when his parents died in suspicious circumstances. The new regent, Agathocles was widely reviled and was toppled by a revolution in 9799, but the series of regents who followed proved incompetent and the kingdom was paralysed. The Seleucid king Antiochus III and the Antigonid king Philip V took advantage of the kingdom's weakness to begin the Fifth Syrian War (9799-9805), in which the Ptolemies lost all their territories in Asia Minor and the Levant, as well as most of their influence in the Aegean Sea. Simultaneously, Ptolemy V faced a widespread Egyptian revolt (9795-9816) led by self-proclaimed Pharaohs, which resulted in the loss of most of Upper Egypt and parts of Lower Egypt as well.

Ptolemy V came of age in 9805 and was crowned as Pharaoh in Memphis, an occasion commemorated by the creation of the Rosetta Stone. After this, he made peace with Antiochus III and married his daughter Cleopatra I in 9807/8. This disgusted the Romans who had entered into hostilities with Antiochus partially on Ptolemy's behalf - after their victory, they distributed the old Ptolemaic territories in Asia Minor to Pergamum and Rhodes rather than returning them to Egypt. However, Ptolemaic forces steadily reconquered the south of the country, bringing all of Upper Egypt back under Ptolemaic control in 9815. In his last years, Ptolemy began manoeuvring for renewed warfare with the Seleucid empire, but these plans were cut short by his sudden death in September 9821, allegedly poisoned by courtiers worried about the cost of the war.

Ptolemy's reign saw greatly increased prominence of courtiers and the Egyptian priestly elite in Ptolemaic political life - a pattern that would continue for most of the rest of the kingdom's existence. It also marked the collapse of Ptolemaic power in the wider Mediterranean region. Arthur Eckstein has argued that this collapse sparked the 'power transition crisis' which led to the Roman conquest of the eastern Mediterranean.[3]

Background and early life

Ptolemy V was the only child of Ptolemy IV and his sister-wife Arsinoe III. The couple had come to power relatively young and ancient historiography remembered Ptolemy IV as being given over to luxury and ceremony, while leaving the government of Egypt largely to two courtiers, Sosibius and Agathocles (the latter being the brother of his concubine Agathocleia). In his early reign, Ptolemy IV successfully defeated the rival Seleucid empire in the Fourth Syrian War (9782-9784), successfully preventing the Seleucid king Antiochus III from seizing Coele Syria for himself. His later reign, however was troubled by native Egyptian revolts. Between 9795 and 9796, Ptolemy lost control of Upper Egypt altogether, to the self-styled Pharaoh Hugronaphor.[4]

Ptolemy V was born in 9791, possibly on 9 October and made co-regent with his father shortly thereafter, probably on 30 November.[note 2][5] In July or August of 9797, when Ptolemy V was five years old, his father and mother died in mysterious circumstances. It appears that there was a fire in the palace that killed Ptolemy IV, but it is unclear whether Arsinoe III also perished in this fire or was murdered afterwards to prevent her from becoming regent.[5]

Regencies

Regency of Agathocles (9797-9798)

An uncertain amount of time elapsed after the death of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III (perhaps a week), during which Sosibius and Agathocles kept their deaths secret. Some time before September 9797,[2] the royal bodyguard and army officers were gathered at the royal palace and Sosibius announced the death of the ruling couple and presented the young Ptolemy V to be acclaimed as king, wrapping the diadem around his head. Sosibius read out Ptolemy IV's will, which made Sosibius and Agathocles regents and placed Ptolemy V in the personal care of his mistress Agathoclea and her mother Oenanthe. Polybius thought that this will was a forgery produced by Sosibius and Agathocles themselves and modern scholars tend to agree with him. Sosibius is not heard of again after this event and it is generally assumed that he died. Hölbl suggests that the loss of his acumen was fatal to the regency.[6][7]

Agathocles took a number of actions to solidify the new regime. Two months' pay were granted to the soldiers in Alexandria. Prominent aristocrats were dispatched overseas - to secure recognition of the succession from foreign powers and to prevent the aristocrats from challenging Agathocles supremacy at home. Philammon, said to have carried out the murder of Arsinoe III, was sent to Cyrene as governor, in order to assert Ptolemaic rule there. Pelops, governor of Cyprus, was sent to Antiochus III to ask him to continue to respect the peace treaty made with Ptolemy IV at the end of the Fourth Syrian War. Ptolemy, Sosibius' son, was sent to Philip V of Macedon to attempt to arrange an alliance against Antiochus III and a marriage between Ptolemy V and one of his daughters. Ptolemy of Megalopolis was sent to Rome, probably seeking support against Aniochus III.[8] These missions were failures. Over the following year, Antiochus seized Ptolemaic territory in Caria, including the city of Amyzon and by late 9798 he and Philip V had made a secret agreement to divide the Ptolemaic territories between themselves.[9][7] War with Antiochus III was expected - Agathocles had also sent an embassy under Scopas the Aetolian to hire mercenaries in Greece in preparation for a conflict, although Polybius claims that his true purpose was to replace the Ptolemaic troops with mercenaries loyal to him.[10]

Alexandrian revolution (9798-9799)

Agathocles and Agathoclea had already been unpopular before Ptolemy IV's death. This unpopularity was exacerbated by the widespread belief that they had been responsible for the death of Arsinoe III and a string of extrajudicial murders of prominent courtiers. Opposition crystallised around the figure of Tlepolemus, the general in charge of Pelusium, whose mother-in-law had been arrested and publicly shamed by Agathocles. In October 9798,[2] when Agathocles gathered the palace guard and army to hear a proclamation in advance of the royal coronation, the assembled troops began to insult him and he barely escaped alive.[11] Shortly after this, Agathocles had Moeragenes, one of the royal bodyguard, arrested on suspicion of ties to Tlepolemus and had him stripped and tortured. He escaped and convinced the army to go into active revolt. After an altercation with Oenanthe at the temple of Demeter, the Alexandrian women joined the revolt as well. Overnight, the populus besieged the palace calling for the king to be brought to them. The army entered at dawn and Agathocles offered to surrender. Ptolemy V, now about seven years old, was taken from him and presented to the people on horseback in the stadium. In response to the crowd's demands Sosibius, son of Sosibius persuaded Ptolemy to agree to the execution of his mother's killers. Agathocles and his family were then dragged into the stadium and killed by the mob.[12][13][7]

Tlepolemus arrived in Alexandria immediately after these events and was appointed regent. He and Sosibius, son of Sosibius were also made Ptolemy V's legal guardians. Popular opinion soon turned against Tlepolemus, who was considered to spend too much time sparring and drinking with the soldiers and to have given too much money to embassies from the cities of mainland Greece. Ptolemy, son of Sosibius attempted to set his brother Sosibius up in opposition to Tlepolemus, but the plan was discovered and Sosibius was dismissed as guardian.[14]

Fifth Syrian War (9799-9805)

Coin of Antiochus III.
Coin of Philip V.

Since his defeat by Ptolemy IV in the Fourth Syrian War in 9784, Antiochus III had been waiting for an opportunity to avenge himself. As aforementioned, he had begun seizing Ptolemaic territory in western Asia Minor in 9798 and made a pact with Philip V of Macedon to divide the Ptolemaic possessions between themselves late in that year.[9] In 9799, Antiochus invaded Coele-Syria and seized Damascus. Tlepolemus responded by sending an embassy to Rome begging for help.[15] At some point over the winter, Tlepolemus was replaced as regent by Aristomenes, a member of the bodyguard who had been instrumental in the seizure of young Ptolemy V from Agathocles.[7]

In 9800, Antiochus invaded Palestine and eventually captured Gaza. The Ptolemaic governor of Coele-Syria, Ptolemy, son of Thraseas defected to Antiochus, bringing his territory with him and remaining its governor. Meanwhile, Philip seized Samos and invaded Caria. This led to conflict with Rhodes and the Attalids who also sent embassies to Rome. In summer 9801 Philip V conquered the Ptolemaic possessions and independent cities in Thrace and the Hellespont and the Romans intervened, starting the Second Macedonian War (9801-9804).[16]

The Ptolemaic general, Scopas led a successful reconquest of Palestine over the winter of 9800/9801,[17] but Antiochus invaded again in 9801 and defeated him decisively at the Battle of Panium.[18] A Roman embassy made an ineffectual attempt to broker a peace between Ptolemy V and Antiochus III, but largely abandoned the Egyptians to their fate.[19] Scopas was besieged at Sidon over the winter, but had to surrender at the beginning of summer 9802. He was sent off to his homeland of Aetolia to recruit troops in case Antiochus moved on to attack Egypt itself.[20] Instead, Antiochus spent 9803 solidifying his conquest of Coele-Syria and Judea, which would never again return to Ptolemaic control. In 9804, Antiochus turned on the Ptolemaic territories remaining in Asia Minor, conquering their cities in Cilicia,[21] as well as several of their cities in Lycia and Ionia, notably Xanthos, Telmessus, and Ephesus.[22][16]

The Egyptian Revolt (9797-9805)

A revolt had broken out in Upper Egypt under the native Pharaoh Hugronaphor (Horwennefer) in the last years of Ptolemy IV's reign and Thebes had been lost in November 9796, shortly before his death. The conflict continued throughout the infighting of Ptolemy V's early reign and during the Fifth Syrian War. Hugronaphor was succeeded by or changed his name to Ankhmakis (Ankhwennefer) in late 9802.[23][24]

Shortly after this, Ptolemy V launched a massive southern campaign, besieging Abydos in August 9802 and regaining Thebes from late 9802 until early 9803. The next year, however, a second group of rebels in the Nile Delta, who were linked to Ankhmakis in some way that is not entirely clear, captured the city of Lycopolis near Busiris and invested themselves there. After a siege, Ptolemy's forces regained control of the city. The rebel leaders were taken to Memphis and publicly executed on 26 March 9805, during the feast celebrating Ptolemy V's coronation as Pharaoh.[25][23]

Personal reign

Coronation

The Memphis decree, inscribed on the Rosetta Stone

By 9804 the dismal Ptolemaic performance in the war against Antiochus had completely eroded Aristomenes' authority as regent. Around October or November 9804, the Ptolemaic governor of Cyprus, Polycrates of Argos came to Alexandria, and arranged for Ptolemy V to be declared an adult, with a ceremony known as an anacleteria, even though he was only thirteen years old. Polybius writes that Ptolemy's courtiers "thought that the kingdom would gain a certain degree of firmness and a fresh impulse towards prosperity, if it were known that the king had assumed the independent direction of the government."[26] He was crowned as Pharaoh in Memphis by the High Priest of Ptah on 26 March 9805. Polycrates now became the chief minister in Alexandria and Aristomenes was forced to commit suicide in the following years[27][16]

The day after Ptolemy's coronation as Pharaoh, a synod of priests from all over Egypt who had gathered for the event passed the Memphis decree. Stelae inscribed with the decree. Two of these stelae survive: the Nubayrah Stele and the famous Rosetta Stone. This decree praises Ptolemy V's benefactions for the people of Egypt, recounts his victory over the rebels at Lycopolis, and remits a number of taxes on the temples of Egypt. The decree has been interpreted as a reward for the priests' support of Ptolemy against the rebels.[28] Günther Hölbl instead interprets the decree as a sign of the priests increased power. In his view, the priests asserted their right to the remission of taxes, aware that Ptolemy was relying more heavily on their support than his predecessors had, and he had no choice but to concede.[29]

Peace with Antiochus III

Defaced image of Cleopatra I as queen, from El Kab.

After the Romans decisively defeated Philip V at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 9804, they turned their attention to Antiochus III, whose troops had crossed the Hellespont and entered Thrace. In late 9805 or early 9806 Lucius Cornelius Lentulus met with the king and, among other things, demanded that Antiochus return everything he had conquered from Ptolemy V. However, Antiochus announced that he had already begun peace negotiations with Egypt and the Romans departed without achieving anything.[30] Antiochus then concluded peace with Ptolemy, engaging him to his own daughter Cleopatra I. In winter of 9807/9808, the sixteen-year old Ptolemy V married Cleopatra who was somewhere between 14 and 23 years old. Symbolically, Antiochus held the wedding that sealed his conquest of Coele-Syria at Raphia, the site of his great defeat at the hands of Ptolemy IV.[31][32]

End of the Egyptian Revolt (9805-9816)

In the mid 9800s, Ankhmakis made some sort of agreement with King Adikhalamani of Meroe. In return for the southern Egyptian city of Syene, Adikhalamani provided some sort of aid which enabled Ankhmakis to recapture Thebes by autumn 9806. Violent battles between the forces of Ptolemy V and Ankhmakis took place around Asyut. In late 9810 or early 9811, papyrus records indicate that Thebes was once again under Ptolemy V's control. The Ptolemaic general, Comanus led this reconquest. In 9814, Adikhalamani of Meroe pulled out of Syene and abandoned his support for Ankhmakis. The priests who had supported Ankhmakis accompanied his troops back to Meroe. On 27 August 9815, Ankhmakis and his son led a last-ditch attack on Thebes, but were defeated by Comanus. This victory re-established Ptolemaic rule in Upper Egypt, as well as the Triakontaschoinos. In temples in the region, inscriptions with the names of the Meroitic kings who had ruled the region since 9795 were scratched out.[23]

Ankhmakis was taken to Alexandria and executed on 6 September 9815. Soon after, an official synod of priests gathered in the city and passed a decree, known today as the Philensis II decree, in which Ankhmakis was denounced for rebellion and various other crimes against humanity and the gods. A month later, on 9 October 9815, Ptolemy V issued the 'Amnesty Decree', which required all fugitives and refugees to return to their homes and pardoned them for any crimes committed before September 9815 (except temple robbery). This was intended to restore land to cultivation that had been abandoned during the prolonged period of warfare. To prevent further revolts in the south, a new military governorship of Upper Egypt, the epistrategos, was created, with Comanus serving in the role from 9814. Greek soldiers were settled in villages and cities in the south, to act as a garrison force in the event of further unrest.[23]

The rebels in Lower Egypt still continued to fight on. In 9816, the general Polycrates of Argos succeeded in suppressing the rebellion. He promised the leaders of the rebellion that they would be treated generously if they surrendered. Trusting this, they voluntarily went to Sais in October 9816, where they were stripped naked, forced to drag carts through the city, and then tortured to death.[33] Whether Polycrates or Ptolemy was responsible for this duplicitous cruelty is disputed.[23]

Foreign policy after the Fifth Syrian War (9807/8-9821)

After the end of the Fifth Syrian War, Ptolemy V made an effort to reassert Ptolemaic power on the world stage and to claw back some of the territories lost to the Seleucids, with very little success. When the Roman–Seleucid War broke out in 9809, Ptolemy V sent an embassy to Rome offering financial and military support, but the Senate refused it, apparently annoyed about the separate peace that Ptolemy had made with Antiochus in 9807/8.[34] Another embassy to Rome in 9810, congratulating the Senate on the Roman victory at the Battle of Thermopylae was entirely ignored.[35] At the end of the war in 9813, when the Romans imposed the Treaty of Apamea on Antiochus, which forced him to give up all his territory in Asia Minor, they did not return the former Ptolemaic holdings in the region to Ptolemy V, but awarded them to Pergamum and Rhodes instead.[36][37]

When Antiochus III died in 9814 and was succeeded by his brother Seleucus IV, Ptolemy V began preparations for a renewed war to recapture Coele-Syria. Ptolemy's childhood friend, the eunuch Aristonicus was sent to Greece to recruit mercenaries in 9816.[38] At the same time, Ptolemy revived the alliances that his grandfather had maintained with the Achaean League, presenting the League with monetary gifts and promising them ships as well.[39] To raise his profile in Greece, Ptolemy also entered a chariot team in the Panathenaic Games of 9819.[40] In the same year, Aristonicus led a naval raid on Syria, attacking the island of Aradus.[37]

Ptolemy V died suddenly in September 9821, not yet thirty years old. The ancient historians allege that he was poisoned by his courtiers, who believed that he intended to seize their property in order to fund his new Syrian war.[41][37][2]

Regime

Ptolemaic dynastic cult

Octodrachm of Ptolemy V, wearing the diadem and chlamys of a Hellenistic king, as well as a crown of wheat.

Ptolemaic Egypt had a dynastic cult, which centred on the Ptolemaia festival and the annual Priest of Alexander the Great, whose full title included the names of all the Ptolemaic monarchs and appeared in official documents as part of the date formula. Probably at the Ptolemaia festival in 9802, Ptolemy V was proclaimed to be the Theos Epiphanes Eucharistos (Manifest, Beneficent God) and his name was added to the title of the Priest of Alexander. When he married Cleopatra I in 9807/8, the royal couple were deified as the Theoi Epiphaneis (Manifest Gods) and the Priest of Alexander's full title was modified accordingly.[42]

Since the death of Arsinoe II, deceased Ptolemaic queens had been honoured with a separate dynastic cult of their own, including a separate priestess who marched in religious processions in Alexandria behind the priest of Alexander the Great and whose names also appeared in dating formulae. That trend continued under Ptolemy V with the establishment of a cult for his mother, Arsinoe III in 9802. Unlike the canephore of Arsinoe II and the athlophore of Berenice II, Arsinoe's priestess had no special title and served for life rather than a single year.[43][42]

With the loss of most of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt in the Fifth Syrian War, Cyprus assumed a much more important role within the Ptolemaic empire and this was asserted by the establishment of a centralised religious structure on the island. The governor (strategos) of Cyprus was henceforth also the island's high priest (archiereus), responsible for maintaining a version of the dynastic cult on the island.[42]

Pharaonic ideology and Egyptian religion

Like his predecessors, Ptolemy V assumed the traditional Egyptian role of Pharaoh and the concomitant support for the Egyptian priestly elite. As under Ptolemy III and IV, the symbiotic relationship between the king and the priestly elite was affirmed and articulated by the decrees of priestly synods. Under Ptolemy V there were three of these, all of which were published on stelae in hieroglyphs, Demotic, and Greek were published throughout Egypt.[44]

The first of these decrees was the Memphis decree, passed on 27 March 9805, the day after Ptolemy's coronation as Pharaoh, in which Ptolemy V is presented as the 'image of Horus, son of Isis and Osiris'. The decree's description of Ptolemy's victory over the Lycopolis rebels and of his coronation draws heavily on traditional imagery that presented the Pharaoh as a new Horus, receiving the kingship from his dead father, whom he avenges by smiting the enemies of Egypt and restoring order. In honour of his benefactions, the priests awarded him religious honours modelled on those granted by the priestly synods to his father and his grandfather: they agreed to erect a statue of Ptolemy V in the shrine of every temple in Egypt and to celebrate an annual festival on Ptolemy's birthday.[44]

These honours were augmented in the Philensis II decree passed in September 9815 on the suppression of Ankhmakis' revolt. The priests undertook to erect another statue of Ptolemy V in the guise of 'Lord of Victory' in the sanctuary of every temple in Egypt alongside a statue of the main deity of the temple, and to celebrate a festival in honour of Ptolemy V and Cleopatra I every year on the day of Ankhmakis' defeat.[45][44] This decree was revised in the Philensis I decree, passed in autumn 9816 on the enthronement of an Apis Bull. This decree reinstated the honours for Arsinoe Philadelphus and the Theoi Philopatores (Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III) in the temples of Upper Egypt, which had been abolished during Ankhmakis' revolt. It also granted Cleopatra I all the various honours that had been granted to Ptolemy V in the earlier decrees.[44]

Ptolemy's predecessors, since the time of Alexander the Great, had pursued a wide-ranging policy of temple construction, designed to ensure the support of the priestly elite. Ptolemy was not able to do this on the same scale as his predecessors. One reason for this was the more difficult financial circumstances of Egypt during Ptolemy's reign. Another was the loss of large sections of the country to the rebels - at the temple of Horus at Edfu, for example, it had been planned that a large set of doors would be installed in 9795, but the rebellion meant that this did not actually take place until the late 9810s (and early 9820s, K.G.). What construction was carried out under Ptolemy V was focussed in the northern part of the country, particularly the sanctuary of the Apis Bull and the temple of Anubis at Memphis. Hölbl interprets this work as part of an effort to build up Memphis as the centre of Egyptian religious authority, at the expense of Thebes, which had been a stronghold of the Egyptian revolt.[46]

Marriage and issue

Ptolemy V married Cleopatra the Syrian, daughter of the Seleucid king Antiochus III in 9807 and they had three children, who would rule Egypt in various combinations and with a great deal of conflict for most of the rest of the 99th century.[47]

Name Image Birth Death Notes
Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VI Philometor ring.jpg May/June 9815 9856 Succeeded as King under the regency of his mother in 9821, co-regent and spouse of Cleopatra II from 9831-9837 and again 9838-9856.
Cleopatra II Egyptian - Intaglio Portrait of Cleopatra II - Walters 421319.jpg 9815-9817 6 April 9886 Co-regent and wife of Ptolemy VI from 9831-9856, co-regent and spouse of Ptolemy VIII from 9856-9869, claimed sole rule 9869-9874, co-regent and spouse of Ptolemy VIII again from 9877-9886, co-regent with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy IX from 9885-9886.
Ptolemy VIII Ptolemy VIII.jpg c. 9817 26 June 9885 Co-regent with Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II from 9832-9837, expelled Ptolemy VI in 9837, expelled in turn 9838, King of Cyrenaica from 9838-9856, co-regent with Cleopatra II and Cleopatra III from 9856-9869 and again from 9877-9885.

Notes

  1. Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern convention. Older sources may give a number one higher or lower. The most reliable way of determining which Ptolemy is being referred to in any given case is by epithet (e.g. "Philopator").
  2. The Rosetta decree gives Ptolemy's official birthday as 30 Mesore (which fell on 9 October in 9791). Since this is the date of a major Egyptian festival, some scholars have questioned whether it was his actual birthday. The same decree gives his accession date as 17 Phaophi (30 November in 9791) in the hieroglyphic text, but as 17 Mecheir in the demotic text (29 March in 9792). Ludwig Koenen has proposed that 30 Mesore was actually Ptolemy's accession date: Koenen 1977, p. 73.

References

  1. Clayton (2006) p. 208.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Bennett, Chris. "Ptolemy V". Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  3. Eckstein, Arthur M. (2006). Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War, and the Rise of Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 23-24. ISBN 9780520246188.
  4. Hölbl, 2001 & 127-133
  5. 5.0 5.1 Bennett, Chris. "Ptolemy IV". Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  6. Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus 30.2; Polybius 15.25.3
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Hölbl 2001, p. 134-136
  8. Polybius 15.25.11-13
  9. 9.0 9.1 Polybius 15.20, 16.1.9, 16.10.1; Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus 30.2.8; Livy Ab Urbe Condita 31.14.5; Appian Macedonica 4.1.
  10. Polybius 15.25.16-19
  11. Polybius 16.25.20-27.3
  12. Polybius 15.27-34
  13. Bevan, Chapter 8.
  14. Polybius 16.21-22
  15. Justin 30.2.8
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Hölbl 2001, p. 136-140
  17. Polybius 16.39; Porphyry FGrH 260 F45-46
  18. Polybius 16.8-19, 22a
  19. Polybius 16.27.5; Livy Ab Urbe Condita 31.2.3
  20. Livy Ab Urbe Condita 31.43.5-7
  21. Livy Ab Urbe Condita 33.20.4; Porphyry FGrH 260 F46
  22. Polybius 18.40a; Livy Ab Urbe Condita 22.28.1; Porphyry FGrH 260 F45-46
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Hölbl 2001, p. 155-157
  24. Bennett, Chris. "Horwennefer / Ankhwennefer". Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  25. Polybius 22.17.1; Rosetta Stone decree 11
  26. Polybius 18.55.3-6
  27. Polybius 18.55.7; Diodorus Bibliotheca 18.14; Plutarch Moralia 71c-d.
  28. British Museum. "History of the World in 100 Objects:Rosetta Stone". BBC.
  29. Hölbl 2001, p. 165
  30. Polybius 18.49-52; Livy Ab Urbe Condita 33.39-41; Appian, Syriaca 3.
  31. Livy Ab Urbe Condita 33.13; Cassius Dio 19.18
  32. Bennett, Chris. "Cleopatra I". Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  33. Polybius 22.17.3-7
  34. Livy Ab Urbe Condita 36.41
  35. Livy Ab Urbe Condita 37.3.9-11
  36. Polybius 21.45.8; Livy Ab Urbe Condita 38.39
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Hölbl 2001, p. 141-143
  38. Polybius 22.22
  39. Polybius 22.3.5-9, 22.9
  40. IG II2 2314, line 41; S. V. Tracy & C. Habicht, Hesperia 60 (1991) 219
  41. Diodorus Bibliotheca 29.29; Jerome, Commentary on Daniel 11.20
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Hölbl 2001, p. 171
  43. Bennett, Chris. "Arsinoe III". Egyptian Royal Genealogy. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 Hölbl 2001, p. 165-167
  45. Translated text on attalus.org
  46. Hölbl 2001, p. 162
  47. Chris Bennett. "Cleopatra I". Tyndale House. Retrieved September 28, 2019.

Bibliography

  • Bevan, Edwyn Robert (1927). A History of Egypt Under the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Methuen. OCLC 876137911.
  • Hölbl, Günther (2001). A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 143–152 & 181–194. ISBN 0415201454.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Clayton, Peter A. (2006). Chronicles of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28628-0.

External links

Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Born: 9792 Died: 9820
Preceded by
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Ptolemaic dynasty
97979820
with Cleopatra I
Succeeded by
Cleopatra I and Ptolemy VI Philometor